Abrasion, transport and distribution of sediment in selected streams of Southern Ontario and Western New York /
AuthorKester, Stephen Joseph.
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AbstractThe rate of decrease in mean sediment size and weight per square metre along a 54 km reach of the Credit River was found to depend on variations in the channel geometry. The distribution of a specific sediment size consist of: (1) a transport zone; (2) an accumulation zone; and (3) a depletion zone. These zones shift downstream in response to downcurrent decreases in stream competence. Along a .285 km man-made pond, within the Credit River study area, the sediment is also characterized by downstream shifting accumulation zones for each finer clast size. The discharge required to initiate movement of 8 cm and 6 cm blocks in Cazenovia Creek is closely approximated by Baker and Ritter's equation. Incipient motion of blocks in Twenty Mile Creek is best predicted by Yalin's relation which is more efficient in deeper flows. The transport distance of blocks in both streams depends on channel roughness and geometry. Natural abrasion and distribution of clasts may depend on the size of the surrounding sediment and variations in flow competence. The cumulative percent weight loss with distance of laboratory abraded dolostone is defined by a power function. The decrease in weight of dolostone follows a negative exponential. In the abrasion mill, chipping causes the high initial weight loss of dolostone; crushing and grinding produce most of the subsequent weight loss. Clast size was found to have little effect on the abrasion of dolostone within the diameter range considered. Increasing the speed of the mill increased the initial amount of weight loss but decreased the rate of abrasion. The abrasion mill was found to produce more weight loss than stream action. The maximum percent weight loss determined from laboratory and field abrasion data is approximately 40 percent of the weight loss observed along the Credit River. Selective sorting of sediment explains the remaining percentage, not accounted for by abrasion.
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Sedimentology of the Sixteen Mile Creek Lagoon, Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, CanadaOtto, Judith E.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1983-07-09)The effec s of relative water level changes in Lake Ontario were detected in the ysical, chemical and biological characteristics of the sediments of the Fifteen, Sixteen and Twenty Mile Creek lagoonal complexes. Regional environmental changes have occurred resulting in the following sequence of sediments in the three lagoons and marsh. From the base up they are; (I) Till,(2) Pink Clay, (3) Bottom Sand, (4) Gyttja, (5) Orange Sandy Silt, (6) Brown Clay and (7) Gray Clay. The till was only encountered in the marsh and channel; however, it is presumed to occur throughout the entire area. The presence of diatoms and sponge spicules, the vertical and ongitudinal uniformity of the sediment and the stratigr ic position of the Pink Clay indicate that it has a glacial or post-glacial lacustrine origin. Overl ng the Pink Clay or Till is a clayey, silty sand to gravel. The downstream fining and unsorted nature of this material indicate that it has a fluvial/deltaic origin. Water levels began rising in the lagoon 3,250 years ago resulting in the deposition of the Gyttja, a brown, organic-rich silty clay probably deposited in a shallow, stagnant environment as shown by the presence of pyrite in the organic material and relatively high proportions of benthic diatoms and grass pollen. Increase in the rate of deposition of the Gyttja on Twenty Mile Creek and a decrease in the same unit on Sixteen Mile Creek is possibly the result of a capture of the Sixteen Mile Creek by the Twenty Mile Creek. The rise in lake level responsible for the onset and transgression of this III unit may have been produced by isostatic rebound; however, the deposition also corresponds closely to a drop in the level of Lake Huron and increased flow through the lower lakes. The o ange Sandy Silt, present only in the marsh, appears to be a buried soil horizon as shown by oxidized roots, and may be the upland equivalant to the Gyttja. Additional deepening resulted in the deposition of Brown Clay, a unit which only occurs at the lakeward end of the three lagoons. The decrease in grass pollen and the relatively high proportion of pelagic diatoms are evidence for this. The deepening may be the result of isostatic rebound; however, the onset of its deposition at 1640 years B.P. is synchronous in the three lagoons and corresponds to the end of the subAtlantic climatic episode. The effects of the climatic change in southern Ontario is uncertain. Average deposition rates of the Brown Clay are similar to those in the upper Gyttja on Sixteen Mile Creek; however, Twenty Mile Creek shows lower rates of the Brown Clay than those in the upper Gyttja. The Gray Clay covers the present bottom of the three lagoons and also occurs in the marsh It is inter1aminated wi sand in the channels. Increases in the rates of deposi ion, high concentrations of Ca and Zn, an Ambrosia rise, and an increase in bioturbation possibly due to the activities of the carp, indicate th this unit is a recent deposit resulting from the activities of man.
The sedimentology of the Bloomington fan complex: an element of the Oak Ridges Moraine, Southern OntarioPaterson, Jens Tore.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1995-07-09)The Oak Ridges Moraine is a major physiographic feature of south-central Ontario, extending from Rice Lake westward to the Niagara Escarpment. While much previous work has largely postulated a relatively simple the origin of the moraine, recent investigations have concentrated on delineating the discernible glacigenic deposits (or landform architectural elements) which comprise the complex mosaic of the Oak Ridges Moraine. This study investigates the sedimentology of the Bloomington fan complex, one of the oldest elements of the Oak Ridges Moraine. The main sediment body of the Bloomington fan complex was deposited during early stages of the formation of the Oak Ridges Moraine, when the ice subdivided, and formed a confined, interlobate lake basin between the northern and southern lobes. Deposition from several conduits produced a fan complex characterized by multiple, laterally overlapping, fan bodies. It appears that the fans were active sequentially in an eastward direction, until the formation of the Bloomington fan complex was dominated by the largest fan fed by a conduit near the northeastern margin of the deposit. Following deposition of the fan complex, the northern and southern ice margins continued to retreat, opening drainage outlets to the west and causing water levels to drop in the lake basin. Glaciofluvial sediment was deposited at this time, cutting into the underlying fan complex. Re-advancing northern ice then closed westerly outlets, and caused water levels to increase, initiating the re-advance of the southern ice. As the southern ice approached the Bloomington fan, it deposited an ice-marginal sediment complex consisting of glacigenic sediment gravity flows, and glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial sediments exhibiting north and northwesterly paleocurrents. Continued advance of the southern ice, overriding the fan complex, ii produced large-scale glaciotectonic deformation structures, and deposited the Halton Till. The subaqueous fan depositional model that is postulated for the Bloomington fan complex differs from published models due to the complex facies associations produced by the multiple conduit sources of sediment feeding the fans. The fluctuating northern and southern ice margins, which moved across the study area in opposite directions, controlled the water level in the interlobate basin and caused major changes in depositional environments. The influence of these two lobes also caused deposition from two distinct source directions. Finally, erosion, deposition, and deformation of the deposit with the readvance of the southern ice contributed further to the complexity of the Bloomington fan complex.
Armor coats, inverse grading, and streambed scour in selected streams of Southern Ontario and Western New York /Maddalena, Albert L.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-06-01)Surface size analyses of Twenty and Sixteen Mile Creeks, the Grand and Genesee Rivers and Cazenovia Creek show three distinct types of bed-surface sediment: 1) a "continuous" armor coat which has a mean size of -6.5 phi and coarser, 2) a "discontinuous" armor coat which has a mean size of approximately -6.0 phi and 3) a bed with no armor coat which has a mean surface size of -5.0 phi and finer. The continuous armor coat completely covers and protects the subsurface from the flow. The discontinuous armor coat is composed of intermittently-spaced surface clasts, which provide the subsurface with only limited protection from the flow. The bed with no armor coat allows complete exposure of the subsurface to the flow. The subsurface beneath the continuous armor coats of Twenty and Sixteen Mile Creeks is possibly modified by a "vertical winnowing" process when the armor coat is p«natrat«d. This process results in a welld «v«loped inversely graded sediment sequence.vertical winnowing is reduced beneath the discontinuous armor coats of the Grand and Genesee Rivers. The reduction of vertical winnowing results in a more poorly-developed inverse grading than that found in Twenty and sixteen Mile Creeks. The streambed of Cazenovia Creek normally is not armored resulting in a homogeneous subsurface which shows no modification by vertical winnowing. This streambed forms during waning or moderate flows, suggesting it does not represent the maximum competence of the stream. Each population of grains in the subsurface layers of Twenty and sixteen Mile Creeks has been modified by vertical winnowing and does not represent a mode of transport. Each population in the subsurface layers beneath a discontinuous armor coat may partially reflect a transport mode. These layers are still inversely graded suggesting that each population is affected to some degree by vertical winnowing. The populations for sediment beneath a surface which is not armored are probably indicative of transport modes because such sediment has not been modified by vertical winnowing. Bed photographs taken in each of the five streams before and after the 1982-83 snow-melt show that the probability of movement for the surface clasts is a function of grain size. The greatest probability of of clast movement and scour depth of this study were recorded on Cazenovia Creek in areas where no armor coat is present. The scour depth in the armored beds of Twenty and Sixteen Mile Creeks is related to the probability of movement for a given mean surface size.