• Abscisic acid implicated in differential plant responses of Phaseolus vulgaris during endophytic colonization by Metarhizium and pathogenic colonization by Fusarium

      Hu, Shasha; Bidochka, Michael J. (Nature Publishing Group, 2021)
      Metarhizium robertsii is an insect pathogen as well as an endophyte, and can antagonize the phytopathogen, Fusarium solani during bean colonization. However, plant immune responses to endophytic colonization by Metarhizium are largely unknown. We applied comprehensive plant hormone analysis, transcriptional expression and stomatal size analysis in order to examine plant immune responses to colonization by Metarhizium and/or Fusarium. The total amount of abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites decreased significantly in bean leaves by plant roots colonized by M. robertsii and increased significantly with F. solani compared to the un-inoculated control bean plant. Concomitantly, in comparison to the un-inoculated bean, root colonization by Metarhizium resulted in increased stomatal size in leaves and reduced stomatal size with Fusarium. Meanwhile, expression of plant immunity genes was repressed by Metarhizium and, alternately, triggered by Fusarium compared to the un-inoculated plant. Furthermore, exogenous application of ABA resulted in reduction of bean root colonization by Metarhizium but increased colonization by Fusarium compared to the control without ABA application. Our study suggested that ABA plays a central role in differential responses to endophytic colonization by Metarhizium and pathogenic colonization by Fusarium and, we also observed concomitant differences in stomatal size and expression of plant immunity genes.
    • Domains of spirituality and their importance to the health of 75 533 adolescents in 12 countries

      Michaelson, V; Smigelskas, K.; King, N; Inchley, J.; Malinowaska-Cieslki, M; Pickett, W (Ocford University Press, 2021)
      Spirituality is considered by many to be an important domain of health. It is sometimes measured in four domains of connections: to oneself, to others, to nature and to the transcendent. While the importance of such connections is recognized as a fundamental human right for children, few interna- tional studies have studied their impacts on the health and well-being of young people. In this study of young people conducted over 4 years in 12 countries, we examined the perceived importance of each of four spiritual health domains and how they each related to positive mental health status in >75 000 adolescents. ‘Connections to self’ were consistently viewed as most important among boys and girls in all 12 countries. Fostering of strong connections to self, which involves cultivating a sense of meaning, purpose and joy in the lives of adolescents, appears most fundamental to achieving men- tal health and well-being. This may be achieved directly through a focus on connections to self, or in- directly by focusing on the indirect effects of the other three domains on mental health. This opens up many opportunities for health promotion in child populations, internationally.
    • Do weight perception and bullying victimization account for links between weight status and mental health among adolescents?

      Patte, Karen A.; Livermore, Maram; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T. (BMC, 2021)
      Background: The purpose of this study was to explore whether the way youth perceive their weight and their experiences of bullying victimization account for the increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms, and poor psychosocial well-being, associated with overweight/obesity in a large sample of Canadian secondary school students. We also explored if associations differed by gender. Methods: We used cross-sectional survey data from year 7 (2018–19) of the COMPASS study. The sample included 57,059 students in grades 9–12 (Secondary III-V in Quebec) at 134 Canadian secondary schools (Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec). First, multiple regression models tested associations between body mass index (BMI) classification and mental health outcomes (anxiety [GAD-7] and depression [CESD-10] symptoms, and psychosocial well-being [Diener’s Flourishing Scale]). Second, weight perception and bullying victimization were added to the models. Models were stratified by gender and controlled for sociodemographic covariates and school clustering. Results: When weight perception and bullying victimization were added to the models, obesity BMI status no longer predicted internalizing symptoms and flourishing scores relative to normal-weight BMIs. Students with ‘overweight’ or ‘underweight’ perceptions, and experiences of bullying victimization in the past month, reported higher anxiety and depressive symptomatology, and lower flourishing levels, in comparison to students with ‘about right’ weight perceptions and without experiences of bullying victimization, respectively, controlling for BMI status. Results were largely consistent across boys and girls. Conclusions: Results suggest perceptions of weight and experiences of bullying independently contribute to differences in mental health outcomes by weight status among youth. Continued efforts targeting weight-based bullying and weight bias, and the promotion of body size acceptance and positive body image, may help reduce the risk of mental illness and poor mental health among adolescents.
    • Family as a health promotion setting: A scoping review of conceptual models of the health-promoting family

      Pilato, Kelly A.; Davison, Colleen M. (2021-04-12)
      Background The family is a key setting for health promotion. Contemporary health promoting family models can establish scaffolds for shaping health behaviors and can be useful tools for education and health promotion. Objectives The objective of this scoping review is to provide details as to how conceptual and theoretical models of the health promoting potential of the family are being used in health promotion contexts. Design Guided by PRISMA ScR guidelines, we used a three-step search strategy to find relevant papers. This included key-word searching electronic databases (Medline, PSycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL), searching the reference lists of included studies, and intentionally searching for grey literature (in textbooks, dissertations, thesis manuscripts and reports.) Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the overall search generated 113 included manuscripts/chapters with 118 unique models. Through our analysis of these models, three main themes were apparent: 1) ecological factors are central components to most models or conceptual frameworks; 2) models were attentive to cultural and other diversities, allowing room for a wide range of differences across family types, and for different and ever-expanding social norms and roles; and 3) the role of the child as a passive recipient of their health journey rather than as an active agent in promoting their own family health was highlighted as an important gap in many of the identified models. Conclusions This review contributes a synthesis of contemporary literature in this area and supports the priority of ecological frameworks and diversity of family contexts. It encourages researchers, practitioners and family stakeholders to recognize the value of the child as an active agent in shaping the health promoting potential of their family context.
    • Examination of BDNF Treatment on BACE1 Activity and Acute Exercise on Brain BDNF Signaling

      Baranowski, Bradley J.; Hayward, Grant C.; Marko, Daniel M.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-05-04)
      Perturbations in metabolism results in the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides, which is a pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate limiting enzyme responsible for beta-amyloid production. Obesogenic diets increase BACE1 while exercise reduces BACE1 activity, although the mechanisms are unknown. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is an exercise inducible neurotrophic factor, however, it is unknown if BDNF is related to the effects of exercise on BACE1. The purpose of this study was to determine the direct effect of BDNF on BACE1 activity and to examine neuronal pathways induced by exercise. C57BL/6J male mice were assigned to either a low (n = 36) or high fat diet (n = 36) for 10 weeks. To determine the direct effect of BDNF on BACE1, a subset of mice (low fat diet = 12 and high fat diet n = 12) were used for an explant experiment where the brain tissue was directly treated with BDNF (100 ng/ml) for 30 min. To examine neuronal pathways activated with exercise, mice remained sedentary (n = 12) or underwent an acute bout of treadmill running at 15 m/min with a 5% incline for 120 min (n = 12). The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were collected 2-h post-exercise. Direct treatment with BDNF resulted in reductions in BACE1 activity in the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05), but not the hippocampus. The high fat diet reduced BDNF content in the hippocampus; however, the acute bout of exercise increased BDNF in the prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05). These novel findings demonstrate the region specific differences in exercise induced BDNF in lean and obese mice and show that BDNF can reduce BACE1 activity, independent of other exercise-induced alterations. This work demonstrates a previously unknown link between BDNF and BACE1 regulation.
    • Current Evidence of the Role of the Myokine Irisin in Cancer

      Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2021-05-27)
      Regular exercise/physical activity is beneficial for the health of an individual and lowers the risk of getting different diseases, including cancer. How exactly exercise results in these health benefits is not known. Recent studies suggest that the molecule irisin released by muscles into the blood stream after exercise may be responsible for these effects. This review summarizes all the available in vitro/cell culture, animal and human studies that have investigated the relationship between cancer and irisin with the aim to shed light and understand the possible role of irisin in cancer. The majority of the in vitro studies indicate anticancer properties of irisin, but more animal and human studies are required to better understand the exact role of irisin in cancer.
    • Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Protect Avian Species in Coastal Communities in the Greater Niagara Region, Canada

      Gauthier, Samantha; May, Bradley; Vasseur, Liette (MDPI AG, 2021-06-04)
      Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to climate change and its effects may push coastal ecosystems to undergo irreversible changes. This is especially true for shorebirds with the loss of biodiversity and resource-rich habitats to rest, refuel, and breed. To protect these species, it is critical to conduct research related to nature-based Solutions (NbS). Through a scoping review of scientific literature, this paper initially identified 85 articles with various ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) strategies that could help conserve shorebird populations and promote ecotourism. Of these 85 articles, 28 articles had EbA strategies that were examined, with some like coral reefs and mangroves eliminated as they were inappropriate for this region. The scoping review identified four major EbA strategies for the Greater Niagara Region with living shorelines and beach nourishment being the most suitable, especially when combined. These strategies were then evaluated against the eight core principles of nature-based solutions protecting shorebird as well as human wellbeing. Living shoreline strategy was the only one that met all eight NbS principles. As the coastline of the region greatly varies in substrate and development, further research will be needed to decide which EbA strategies would be appropriate for each specific area to ensure their efficacy.
    • When the Easy Becomes Difficult: Factors Affecting the Acquisition of the English /iː/-/ɪ/ Contrast

      Cebrian, Juli; Gorba, Celia; Gavaldà, Núria (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-06-10)
      The degree of similarity between the sounds of a speaker’s first and second language (L1 and L2) is believed to determine the likelihood of accurate perception and production of the L2 sounds. This paper explores the relationship between cross-linguistic similarity and the perception and production of a subset of English vowels, including the highly productive /iː/-/ɪ/ contrast (as in “beat” vs. “bit”), by a group of Spanish/Catalan native speakers learning English as an L2. The learners’ ability to identify, discriminate and produce the English vowels accurately was contrasted with their cross-linguistic perceived similarity judgements. The results showed that L2 perception and production accuracy was not always predicted from patterns of cross-language similarity, particularly regarding the difficulty distinguishing /iː/ and /ɪ/. Possible explanations may involve the way the L2 /iː/ and /ɪ/ categories interact, the effect of non-native acoustic cue reliance, and the roles of orthography and language instruction.
    • Serum MMP‐3 and its association with central arterial stiffness among young adults is moderated by smoking and BMI

      Iannarelli, Nathaniel J.; MacNeil, Adam J.; Dempster, Kylie S.; Wade, Terrance J.; O’Leary, Deborah D. (Wiley, 2021-06-10)
      Central arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by a marked reduction in the elastin-collagen ratio of the arterial wall extracellular matrix (ECM), and is largely the result of degradation of various ECM components. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) may contribute to central arterial stiffness via its involvement in ECM homeostasis and remodeling. This study examined the association between serum MMP-3 concentrations and central arterial stiffness and potential interactions of MMP-3 and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a population of healthy young adults. A total of 206 participants (n = 109 females) aged 19–25 years were included in the current study. Central arterial stiffness was measured non-invasively as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) (m/s). MMP-3 concentrations (ng/ml) were measured using ELISA techniques. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between cfPWV and MMP-3, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), instantaneous mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate, and serum C-reactive protein. Interactions between MMP-3 with smoking, BMI, sex, and MAP were analyzed in subsequent regression models. MMP-3 was an independent predictor of cfPWV (β = 0.187, p = 0.007), and significant interactions between MMP-3 and regular smoking (β = 0.291, p = 0.022), and MMP-3 and BMI (β = 0.210, p = 0.013) were observed. Higher serum MMP-3 concentrations were associated with a faster cfPWV and thus, greater central arterial stiffness. Interactions between MMP-3 and smoking, and MMP-3 and BMI may, in part, drive the association between MMP-3 and central arterial stiffness.
    • Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Increases White Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Markers in Male and Female Rats in a Depot Specific Manner

      Ryan, Chantal R.; Finch, Michael S.; Dunham, Tyler C.; Murphy, Jensen E.; Roy, Brian D.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (MDPI AG, 2021-07-14)
      White adipose tissue (WAT) is a dynamic endocrine organ that can play a significant role in thermoregulation. WAT has the capacity to adopt structural and functional characteristics of the more metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) and contribute to non-shivering thermogenesis under specific stimuli. Non-shivering thermogenesis was previously thought to be uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent however, recent evidence suggests that UCP1-independent mechanisms of thermogenesis exist. Namely, futile creatine cycling has been identified as a contributor to WAT thermogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation to alter mitochondrial markers as well as adipocyte size and multilocularity in inguinal (iWAT), gonadal (gWAT), and BAT. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with varying doses (0 g/L, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L) of creatine monohydrate for 8 weeks. We demonstrate that mitochondrial markers respond in a sex and depot specific manner. In iWAT, female rats displayed significant increases in COXIV, PDH-E1alpha, and cytochrome C protein content. Male rats exhibited gWAT specific increases in COXIV and PDH-E1alpha protein content. This study supports creatine supplementation as a potential method of UCP1-independant thermogenesis and highlights the importance of taking a sex-specific approach when examining the efficacy of browning therapeutics in future research.
    • Lifestyle decisions and climate mitigation: current action and behavioural intent of youth

      Pickering, Gary J.; Schoen, Kaylee; Botta, Marta (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-26)
      Youth carry the burden of a climate crisis not of their making, yet their accumulative lifestyle decisions will help determine the severity of future climate impacts. We surveyed 17–18 year old’s (N=487) to establish their action stages for nine behaviours that vary in efficacy of greenhouse gas emission (GGE) reduction and the explanatory role of climate change (CC) knowledge, sociodemographic and belief factors. Acceptance of CC and its anthropogenic origins was high. However, the behaviours with the greatest potential for GGE savings (have no children/one less child, no car or first/next car will be electric, eat less meat) have the lowest uptake. Descriptive normative beliefs predicted intent to adopt all high-impact actions, while environmental locus of control, CC scepticism, knowledge of the relative efficacy of actions, religiosity and age were predictive of action stage for several mitigation behaviours (multinomial logistic regression). These findings inform policy and communication interventions that seek to mobilise youth in the global climate crisis response
    • Role of the Myokine Irisin on Bone Homeostasis: Review of the Current Evidence

      Kornel, Amanda; Den Hartogh, Danja J.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI AG, 2021-08-24)
      Bone is a highly dynamic tissue that is constantly adapting to micro-changes to facilitate movement. When the balance between bone building and resorption shifts more towards bone resorption, the result is reduced bone density and mineralization, as seen in osteoporosis or osteopenia. Current treatment strategies aimed to improve bone homeostasis and turnover are lacking in efficacy, resulting in the search for new preventative and nutraceutical treatment options. The myokine irisin, since its discovery in 2012, has been shown to play an important role in many tissues including muscle, adipose, and bone. Evidence indicate that irisin is associated with increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, leading to reduced risk of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. In addition, low serum irisin levels have been found in individuals with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Irisin targets key signaling proteins, promoting osteoblastogenesis and reducing osteoclastogenesis. The present review summarizes the existing evidence regarding the effects of irisin on bone homeostasis.
    • The Transition Online: A Mixed-Methods Study of the Impact of COVID-19 on Students with Disabilities in Higher Education

      Mullins, Laura E; Mitchell, Jennifer (Sciedu Press, 2021-09-05)
      Following the World Health Organization’s announcement of the global pandemic because of the Coronavirus Disease 2019, most Canadian universities transitioned to offering their courses exclusively online. One group affected by this transition was students with disabilities. Previous research has shown that the university experience for students with disabilities differs from those of their non-disabled peers. However, their unique needs are often not taken into consideration. As a result, students can become marginalized and alienated from the online classroom. In partnership with Student Accessibility Services, this research revealed the impact of the transition to online learning because of the pandemic for university students with disabilities. Students registered with Student Accessibility Services completed a survey about the effects of online learning during a pandemic on the students’ lives, education, and instructional and accommodation. It was clear from the results that online education during COVID-19 affected all aspects of the students’ lives, particularly to their mental health. This research provided a much-needed opportunity for students with disabilities to share the factors influencing their educational experience and identified recommendations instructors should consider when developing online courses to increase accessibility and improve engagement.
    • Development of a dual-factor measure of adolescent mental health: an analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

      King, Nathan; Davison, Colleen M; Pickett, William (BMJ, 2021-09-30)
      Introduction Studies of adolescent mental health require valid measures that are supported by evidence-based theories. An established theory is the dual-factor model, which argues that mental health status is only fully understood by incorporating information on both subjective well-being and psychopathology. Objectives To develop a novel measure of adolescent mental health based on the dual-factor model and test its construct validity. Design Cross-sectional analysis of national health survey data. Setting and participants Nationally weighted sample of 21 993 grade 6–10 students; average age: 14.0 (SD 1.4) years from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Measures Self-report indicators of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive and negative affect), and psychopathology (psychological symptoms and overt risk-taking behaviour) were incorporated into the dual-factor measure. Characteristics of adolescents families, specific mental health indicators and measures of academic and social functioning were used in the assessment of construct validity. Results Proportions of students categorised to the four mental health groups indicated by the dual-factor measure were 67.6% ‘mentally healthy’, 17.5% ‘symptomatic yet content’, 5.5% ‘asymptomatic yet discontent’ and 9.4% ‘mentally unhealthy’. Being mentally healthy was associated with the highest functioning (greater social support and academic functioning) and being mentally unhealthy was associated with the worst. A one-unit increase (ranges=0–10) in peer support (OR 1.19; 95%CI 1.15 to 1.22), family support (OR 1.32; 95%CI 1.28 to 1.36), student support (OR 1.20; 95%CI 1.17 to 1.24) and average school marks (OR 1.18; 95%CI 1.10 to 1.27) increased the odds of being symptomatic yet content versus mentally unhealthy. Mentally healthy youth were the most likely to live with both parents (77% vs ≤65%) and report their family as well-off (62% vs ≤53%). Conclusions We developed a novel, construct valid dual-factor measure of adolescent mental health. This potentially provides a nuanced and comprehensive approach to the assessment of adolescent mental health that is direly needed.
    • Preliminary Evaluation of an Adaptive Robotic Training Program of the Wrist for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

      Mannella, Kailynn; Albanese, Giulia A.; Ditor, David; Zenzeri, Jacopo; Holmes, Michael W. R. (MDPI AG, 2021-10-04)
      Robotics can be used to describe wrist kinematics and assess sensorimotor impairments, while the implementation of training algorithms can be aimed at improving neuromuscular control. The purpose of this study was to use a robotic device to develop an adaptive and individualized training program of the distal upper extremity for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). This approach included an online assessment of performance aimed at changing the level of assistance/resistance provided during the task. Participants (N = 7) completed a robotic training program that occurred 3 times weekly for 4 weeks. The training protocol consisted of tracking a target moving along a figure by grasping the end-effector of the robotic device and moving it along the trajectory. Outcome measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Improvements in performance were quantified by average tracking (p = 0.028) and figural error (p = 0.028), which was significantly reduced by 26% and 43%, respectively. Isometric wrist strength significantly improved post-intervention (flexion: p = 0.043, radial and ulnar deviation: p = 0.028). The results of this work demonstrate that 4-weeks of adaptive robotic training is a feasible rehabilitative program that has the potential to improve distal upper extremity motor accuracy and muscular strength in a MS population.
    • Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations

      Pickering, Gary J.; Willwerth, Jim; Botezatu, Andreea; Thibodeau, Margaret (MDPI AG, 2021-10-15)
      Alkyl-methoxypyrazines are an important class of odor-active molecules that contribute green, ‘unripe’ characters to wine and are considered undesirable in most wine styles. They are naturally occurring grape metabolites in many cultivars, but can also be derived from some Coccinellidae species when these ‘ladybugs’ are inadvertently introduced into the must during harvesting operations. The projected impacts of climate change are discussed, and we conclude that these include an altered alkyl-methoxypyrazine composition in grapes and wines in many wine regions. Thus, a careful consideration of how to manage them in both the vineyard and winery is important and timely. This review brings together the relevant literatures on viticultural and oenological interventions aimed at mitigating alkyl-methoxypyrazine loads, and makes recommendations on their management with an aim to maintaining wine quality under a changing and challenging climate.
    • The role of the arousal system in age‐related differences in cortical functional network architecture

      Guardia, Tiago; Geerligs, Linda; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Ye, Rong; Campbell, Karen L. (Wiley, 2021-10-29)
      A common finding in the aging literature is that of the brain's decreased within- and increased between-network functional connectivity. However, it remains unclear what is causing this shift in network organization with age. Given the essential role of the ascending arousal system (ARAS) in cortical activation and previous findings of disrupted ARAS functioning with age, it is possible that age differences in ARAS func- tioning contribute to disrupted cortical connectivity. We test this possibility here using resting state fMRI data from over 500 individuals across the lifespan from the Cambridge Center for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) population-based cohort. Our results show that ARAS-cortical connectivity declines with age and, consistent with our expectations, significantly mediates some age-related differences in connec- tivity within and between association networks (specifically, within the default mode and between the default mode and salience networks). Additionally, connectivity between the ARAS and association networks predicted cognitive performance across several tasks over and above the effects of age and connectivity within the cortical networks themselves. These findings suggest that age differences in cortical connec- tivity may be driven, at least in part, by altered arousal signals from the brainstem and that ARAS–cortical connectivity relates to cognitive performance with age.
    • Characterizing SERCA Function in Murine Skeletal Muscles after 35–37 Days of Spaceflight

      Braun, Jessica L.; Geromella, Mia S.; Hamstra, Sophie I.; Messner, Holt N.; Fajardo, Val A. (MDPI AG, 2021-10-29)
      It is well established that microgravity exposure causes significant muscle weakness and atrophy via muscle unloading. On Earth, muscle unloading leads to a disproportionate loss in muscle force and size with the loss in muscle force occurring at a faster rate. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, a role for Ca2+ dysregulation has been suggested. The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump actively brings cytosolic Ca2+ into the SR, eliciting muscle relaxation and maintaining low intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). SERCA dysfunction contributes to elevations in [Ca2+]i, leading to cellular damage, and may contribute to the muscle weakness and atrophy observed with spaceflight. Here, we investigated SERCA function, SERCA regulatory protein content, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) protein adduction in murine skeletal muscle after 35–37 days of spaceflight. In male and female soleus muscles, spaceflight led to drastic impairments in Ca2+ uptake despite significant increases in SERCA1a protein content. We attribute this impairment to an increase in RONS production and elevated total protein tyrosine (T) nitration and cysteine (S) nitrosylation. Contrarily, in the tibialis anterior (TA), we observed an enhancement in Ca2+ uptake, which we attribute to a shift towards a faster muscle fiber type (i.e., increased myosin heavy chain IIb and SERCA1a) without elevated total protein T-nitration and S-nitrosylation. Thus, spaceflight affects SERCA function differently between the soleus and TA.
    • Characterization of Alzheimer's disease‐like neuropathology in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy using the DBA/2J mdx mouse model

      Hayward, Grant C.; Caceres, Daniela; Copeland, Emily N.; Baranowski, Bradley J.; Mohammad, Ahmad; Whitley, Kennedy C.; Fajardo, Val A.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (Wiley, 2021-11-11)
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle wasting disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. In addition to muscle pathology, some patients with DMD will exhibit cognitive impairments with severity being linked to age and type of genetic mutation. Likewise, some studies have shown that mdx mice display impairments in spatial memory compared with wild-type (WT) controls, while others have not observed any such effect. Most studies have utilized the traditional C57BL/10 (C57) mdx mouse, which exhibits a mild disease phenotype. Recently, the DBA/2J (D2) mdx mouse has emerged as a more severe and perhaps clinically relevant DMD model; however, studies examining cognitive function in these mice are limited. Thus, in this study we examined cognitive function in age-matched C57 and D2 mdx mice along with their respective WT controls. Our findings show that 8- to 12-week-old C57 mdx mice did not display any differences in exploration time when challenged with a novel object recognition test. Conversely, age-matched D2 mdx mice spent less time exploring objects in total as a well as less time exploring the novel object, suggestive of impaired recognition memory. Biochemical analyses of the D2 mdx brain revealed higher soluble amyloid precursor protein b(APPb) and APP in the prefrontal cortex of mdx mice compared with WT, and lower soluble APPa in the hippocampus, suggestive of a shift towards amyloidogenesis and a similar pathogenesis to Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the utility of the D2 mdx model in studying cognitive impairment.
    • Theorizing Community for Sport Management Research and Practice

      Rich, Kyle A.; Spaaij, Ramón; Misener, Laura (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-11-19)
      Community is a context for much research in sport, sport management, and sport policy, yet relatively few authors explicitly articulate the theoretical frameworks with which they interrogate the concept. In this paper, we draw from communitarian theory and politics in order to contribute to a robust discussion and conceptualization of community in and for sport management research and practice. We provide a synthesis of current sport management and related research in order to highlight contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches to studying community. We distinguish between community as a context, as an outcome, as a site for struggle or resistance, as well as a form of regulation or social control. We then advance a critical communitarian agenda and consider the practical implications and considerations for research and practice. This paper synthesizes current research and establishes a foundation upon which sport management scholars and practitioners might critically reflect on community and deliberatively articulate its implications in both future research and practice.