The surficial geology, sedimentology and geochemistry of the late glacial sediments and Paleozoic bedrock in the Campbellford area, Ontario, with special reference to the Dummer Complex /
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AbstractThe Dummer Complex extends 180 km along the Precambrian - Paleozoic contact from Tamworth to Lake Simcoe. It is composed of coarse, angular Paleozoic clasts in discontinuous, pitted, hummocky deposits. Deposits are usually separated by bare or boulder strewn bedrock, but have been found in the southern drumlinized till sheet. Dummer Complex deposits show rough alignment with ice-flow. Eskers cross-cut many of the deposits. Dummer sediment subfacies are defined on the basis of dominant coarse grain size and lithology, which relate directly to the underlying Paleozoic formation. Three subglacial tills are identified based on the degree of comminution and distance of transport; the immature facies of the Dummer Complex; the mature facies of the drumlinized till sheet and; the submature facies which is transitional. Carbonate geochemistry was used for till-bedrock correlation in various grain sizes. Of the 3 Paleozoic formations underlying the Dummer Complex, the Gull River Fm. is geochemically distinctive from the Bobcaygeon and Verulam Formations using Ca, Mg, Sr, Cu, Mn, Fe and Na. The Bobcaygeon Fm. and Verulam Fm. can be differentiated using Ca and the Sr/Ca ratio. The immature facies from 1.0 phi and finer is dominated by the non-carbonate, long distance transported component which decreases slightly downice. The submature till facies contains more long distance material than the immature facies. Sr and Mn can be used to correlate the Gull River immature till facies to the underlying bedrock the other subfacies could not be distinguished from each other or their respective source formation. This method proved to be ineffective for sediments with greater than 35% non-carbonate component, due to leaching of elements by the dissolving acid.The Dummer Complex is produced subglacially , as the compressional ice encounters the permeable Paleozoic carbonates. The increased shear strength of the ice and pore pressures in the carbonates results in the basal ice zones becoming debris ladden. Cleaner ice overrides the basal debris . laden dead ice which then acts as the glacier bed. During retreat, the Simcoe lobe stagnates as flow is cut-off by the Algonquin Highlands.
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Structural, stratigraphic and geochemical studies of the Horwood Peninsula - Gander Bay Area, Northeast Newfoundland /Wu, Tsai-Way.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1979-06-29)The Horwood Peninsula - Gander Bay area is located at NE Newfoundland in the Botwood Zone (Williams et a1., 1974) or in the Dunnage Zone (Williams, 1979) of the Central Mobile Belt of the Newfoundland Appalachians. The area is underlain by Middle Ordovician to possible Lower Silurian rocks of the Davidsville and Indian Islands Groups, respectively. Three conformable formations named informally : the Mafic Volcanic Formation, the Greywacke and Siltstone Formation and the Black Slate Formation, have been recognized in the Davidsville Group. The Greywacke and the Black Slate Formations pass locally into a Melange Formation. From consideration of regional structure and abundant locally-derived mafic volcanic olisto- 1iths in the melange, it is considered to have originated by gravity sliding rather than thrusting. Four formations have been recognized in the Indian Islands Group. They mainly contain silty slate and phyllite, grey cherty siltstone, green to red micaceous siltstone and limestone horizons. Repetition of lithological units by F1 folding are well-demonstrated in one of formations in this Group. The major structure in this Group on the Horwood Peninsula is interpreted to be a synclinal complex. The lithology of this Group is different from the Botwood Group to the west and is probably Late Ordovician and/or Early Silurian in age. The effects of soft-sediment deformation can be seen from the lower part of the Davidsville Group to the middle part of the Indian Islands Group indicating continuous and/or episodic slumping and sliding activities throughout the whole area. However, no siginificant depOSitional and tectonic break that could be assigned to the Taconian Orogeny has been recognized in this study. Three periods of tectonic deformation were produced by the Acadian Orogeny. Double boudinage in thin dikes indicates a southeast-northwest sub-horizontal compression and main northeast-southwest sub-horizontal extension during the D1 deformation. A penetrative, axial planar slaty cleavage (Sl) and tight to isocJ.ina1 F1 folds are products of this deformation. The D2 and D3 deformations formed S2 and S3 fabrics associated with crenulations and kink bands which are well-shown in the slates and phyllites of the Indian Islands Group. The D2 and D3 deformations are the products of vertical and northeast-southwest horizontal shortening respectively. The inferred fault between the Ordovician slates (Davidsville Group) and the siltstones (Indian Islands Group) suggested by Williams (1963, 1964b, 1972, 1978) is absent. Formations can be followed without displacement across this inferred fault. Chemically, the pillow lavas, mafic agglomerates, tuff beds and diabase dikes are subdivided into three rock suites : (a) basaltic komatiite (Beaver Cove Assemblage), (b) tholeiitic basalt (diabase dikes), (c) alkaline basalt (Shoal Bay Assemblage). The high Ti02 , MgO, Ni contents and bimodal characteristic of the basaltic komatiite in the area are comparable to the Svartenhuk Peninsula at Baffin Bay and are interpreted to be the result of an abortive volcano-tectonic rift-zone in a rear-arc basin. Modal and chemical analyses of greywackes and siltstones show the trend of maturity of these rocks increasing from poorly sorted Ordovician greywackes to fairly well-sorted Silurian siltstones. Rock fragments in greywackes indicate source areas consisting of plagiogranite, low grade metamorphic rocks and ultramafic rocks. Rare sedimentary structures in both Groups indicate a southeasterly provenance. Trace element analyses of greywackes also reveal a possible island-arc affinity.
Evolution of an Archean greenstone belt in the Stormy Lake - Kawashegamuk Lake area (stratigraphy, structure and geochemistry) - Western Wabigoon Subprovince, Northwest Ontario /Kresz, D. U.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-06-01)330 km 2 of the easter-n part of the Archean Manitou Lakes - Stormy Lake metavolcanic - metasedimentary belt have been mapped and sampled. A large number of rocks ~.vere analyzed for the major and trace constituents including the rare-earth elements (REE). The Stormy Lake - Kawashegamuk Lake area may be subdivided into four major lithological groups of supracrustal rocks 1) A north-facing mafic assemblage, consisting of pillowed tholeiitic basalts and gabbro sills characterized by flat REE profiles, is exposed in the south part of the map area and belongs to a 8000 m thick homoclinal assemblage outside the map area. Felsic pyroclastic rocks believed to have been issued from a large central vent conformably overlie the tholeiites. 2) A dominantly epiclastic group facing to the north consists of terrestrial deposits interpreted to be an alluvial fan deposit ; a submarine facies is represented by turbiditic sediments. 3) The northeastern part of the study area consists of volcanic rocks belonging to two mafic - felsic cycles facing to the southuest ; andesitic flows with fractionated REE patterns make up a large part of the upper cycle, whereas the lower cycle has a stronger chemical polarity being represented by tholeiitic flows, with flat REE, which a r e succeeded by dacitic and rhyolitic pyroclasti cs. iii 4) A thick monotonous succession of tholeiitic pillmled basalt f lows and gabbro sills with flat REE represent the youngest supracrustal rocks. TIle entire belt underwent folding, faulting and granitic plutonism during a tectono-thermal event around 2700 Ma ago. Rocks exposed in the map area were subjected to regional greenschist facies metamorphism, but higher metamorphic grades are present near late granitic intrusions. Geochemical studies have been useful in 1) distinguishing the various rock units ; 2) relating volcanic and intrusive rocks 3) studying the significance of chemical changes due to post magmatic processes 4) determining the petrogenesis of the major volcanic rock types. In doing so, two major volcanic suites have been recognized : a) a tholeiitic suite, mostly represented by mafic rocks, was derived from partial melting of upper mantle material depleted in Ti, K and the light REE ; b) a calc-alkalic suite which evolved from partial melting of amphibolite in the lower crust. The more differentiated magma types have been produced by a multistage process involving partial melting and fractional crystallization to yield a continuum of compos i t i ons ranging from basaltic andesite to rhyolite. A model for the development of the eastern part of the Manitou Lakes - Stormy Lake belt has been proposed.
Biogeochemistry of Paleozoic brachiopods from New York State and OntarioBates, Nicholas R.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1989-07-09)A comprehensive elemental, isotopic and microstructural analyses was undertaken of brachiopod calcites from the Hamilton Group (Middle Devonian), Clinton Group (Middle Silurian) and Middle to Upper Ordovician strata of Ontario and New York State. The majority of specimens were microstructurally and chemically preserved in a pristine state, although a number of specimens show some degree of post-depositional alteration. Brachiopod calcites from the Hamilton and Clinton Groups were altered by marine derived waters whereas Trenton Group (Middle Ordovician) brachiopods altered in meteorically derived fluids. Analysis of the elemental and isotopic compositions of pristine Hamilton Group brachiopods indicates there are several chemical relationships inherent to brachiopod calcite. Taxonomic differentiation of Mg, Sr and Na contents was evident in three co-occuring species from the Hamilton Group. Mean Mg contents of pristine brachiopods were respectively Athyris spiriferoides (1309ppm), Mucrospirifer mucronatus (1035ppm) and Mediospirifer audacula (789ppm). Similarly, taxonomic differentiation of shell calcite compositions was observed in co-occuring brachiopods from the Clinton Group (Middle Silurian) and the Trenton Group (Middle Ordovician). The taxonomic control of elemental regulation into shell calcite is probably related to the slightly different physiological systems and secretory mechanisms. A relationship was observed in Hamilton Group species between the depth of respective brachiopod communities and their Mg, Sr and Na contents. These elements were depleted in the shell calcites of deeper brachiopods compared to their counterparts in shallower reaches. Apparently shell calcite elemental composition is related to environmental conditions of the depositional setting, which may have controlled the secretory regime, mineral morphology of shell calcite and precipitation rates of each species. Despite the change in Mg, Sr and Na contents between beds and formations in response to environmental conditions, the taxonomic differentiation of shell calcite composition is maintained. Thus, it may be possible to predict relative depth changes in paleoenvironmental reconstructions using brachiopod calcite. This relationship of brachiopod chemistry to depth was also tested within a transgressiveregressive (T-R) cycle in the Rochester Shale Formation (Middle Silurian). Decreasing Mg, Sr and Na contents were observed in the transition from the shallow carbonates of the Irondequoit Formation to the deeper shales of the lowest 2 m of Rochester Shale. However, no isotopic and elemental trends were observed within the entire T-R cycle which suggests that either the water conditions did not change significantly or that the cycle is illusory. A similar relationship was observed between the Fe and Mn chemistries of shell calcite and redox/paleo-oxygen conditions. Hamilton Group brachiopods analysed from deeper areas of the shelf are enriched in Mn and Fe relative to those from shallow zones. The presence of black shales and dysaerobic faunas, during deposition of the Hamilton Group, suggests that the waters of the northern Appalachian Basin were stratified. The deeper brachiopods were marginally positioned above an oxycline and their shell calcites reflect periodic incursions of oxygen depleted water. Furthermore, analysis of Dalmanella from the black shales of the Collingwood Shale (Upper Ordovician) in comparison to those from the carbonates of the Verulam Formation (Middle Ordovician) confirm the relationship of Fe and Mn contents to periodic but not permanent incursions of low oxygen waters. The isotopic compositions of brachiopod calcite found in Hamilton Group (813C; +2.5% 0 to +5.5% 0; 8180 -2.50/00 to -4.00/00) and Clinton Group (813C; +4.00/00 to +6.0; 8180; -1.8% 0 to -3.60/ 00) are heavier than previously reported. Uncorrected paleotemperatures (assuming normal salinity, 0% 0 SMOW and no fractionation effects) derived from these isotopic values suggest that the Clinton sea temperature (Middle Silurian) ranged from 18°C to 28°C and Hamilton seas (Middle Devonian) ranged between 24°C and 29°C. In addition, the isotopic variation of brachiopod shell calcite is significant and is related to environmental conditions. Within a single time-correlative shell bed (the Demissa Bed; Hamilton Group) a positive isotopic shift of 2-2.5% 0 in 013C compositions and a positive shift of 1.0-1.50/00 in 0180 composition of shell calcite is observed, corresponding with a deepening of brachiopod habitats toward the axis of the Appalachian Basin. Moroever, a faunal succession from deeper Ambocoelia dominated brachiopod association to a shallow Tropidoleptus dominated assocation is reflected by isotopic shifts of 1.0-1.50/00. Although, other studies have emphasized the significance of ±20/oo shifts in brachiopod isotopic compositions, the recognition of isotopic variability in brachiopod calcite within single beds and within depositional settings such as the Appalachian Basin has important implications for the interpretation of secular isotopic trends. A significant proportion of the variation observed isotopic distribution during the Paleozoic is related to environmental conditions within the depositional setting.