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dc.contributor.authorO’Neill, Eric J.
dc.contributor.authorDen Hartogh, Danja J.
dc.contributor.authorAzizi, Karim
dc.contributor.authorTsiani, Evangeli
dc.date.accessioned2020-11-10T15:34:51Z
dc.date.available2020-11-10T15:34:51Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.citationAntioxidants, 2020-10-08, Vol.9 (10), p.961en_US
dc.identifier.issn2076-3921
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10464/14962
dc.description.abstractCancer is characterized by unrestricted cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, enhanced invasion and migration, and deregulation of signalling cascades. These properties lead to uncontrolled growth, enhanced survival, and the formation of tumours. Carnosol, a naturally occurring phyto-polyphenol (diterpene) found in rosemary, has been studied for its extensive antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. In cancer cells, carnosol has been demonstrated to inhibit cell proliferation and survival, reduce migration and invasion, and significantly enhance apoptosis. These anticancer effects of carnosol are mediated by the inhibition of several signalling molecules including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Additionally, carnosol prevents the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and promotes apoptosis, as indicated by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic marker Bcl-2-associated X (BAX), and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic marker B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo evidence examining the anticancer effects of carnosol across various tissues.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.subjectCarnosolen_US
dc.subjectApoptosisen_US
dc.subjectCanceren_US
dc.subjectProliferationen_US
dc.subjectSurvivalen_US
dc.subjectIn vitroen_US
dc.titleAnticancer Properties of Carnosol: A Summary of In Vitro and In Vivo Evidenceen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/antiox9100961
refterms.dateFOA2021-08-12T01:38:52Z


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