• Applying Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Protect Biodiversity of Avian Species in Coastal Communities in the Greater Niagara Region

      Gauthier, Samantha
      Communities located in the coastal zone are increasingly vulnerable to climate change. The effects of climate change may push coastal ecosystems to undergo irreversible changes. This is especially true for shorebirds as it results in the loss of biodiversity and resource-rich areas to rest, refuel and breed. To protect these species, it is critical to conduct more research related to nature-based solutions. Through a scoping review of scientific literature, this paper evaluated 85 articles and included a summary of various sustainable ecosystem-based adaptation strategies, including living shorelines and beach nourishment. These strategies were evaluated under the eight core principles of nature-based solutions in order to determine the efficiency of protecting shorebird biodiversity in the Greater Niagara Region. All adaptation strategies were examined through a social, economic and environmental lens and future improvements were suggested to increase the efficiency of these strategies. This research also highlights its contribution to sustainability science.
    • Reviewing the Options for the Agricultural Sector to Adapt to Climate Change: Case Study of the Niagara Region, ON

      Garg, Pulkit
      The agricultural sector of the Niagara Region has experienced multiple impacts of climate change in recent years, which are projected to increase in the future. There is an urgent need to examine available adaptation strategies for Niagara’s agricultural sector, considering its vulnerability to a changing climate and significance for the Region’s economy and food production. Using a scoping review of scientific literature to analyze 4375 articles on two databases, this research has investigated four potential adaptation strategies - i.e. technology-based adaptation, ecosystem-based adaptation, community-based adaptation and policy-based adaptation - that can be used by the agricultural sector. All adaptation strategies were also examined through a social, economic and environmental lens using a SWOT Analysis. Through this statement, this research also highlights its contribution to sustainability science and sustainable development (SDG 2 – Food Security and SDG 13 – Climate Action) as one of the steps towards a more resilient future.