• The Forest and its Trees: A Critical Inquiry into the Use of Nature-based Solutions in Canada’s A Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy Plan

      Esdale, Gavin
      Nature-based solutions (NbS) and natural climate solutions (NCS) have emerged as promising options to address the challenges of the global climate and biodiversity crises. However, confusion persists about the meaning and practical implications of these relatively new approaches in the public, private, and political spheres. This research paper explores how the Government of Canada conceptualizes NbS and NCS, first through a scoping review of literature regarding the conceptual definitions and limits of NbS and NCS, and then through a directed content analysis of their 2020 climate plan, titled A Healthy Environment and a Healthy Economy (HEHE). This research determines that the NbS and NCS concepts are frequently confused or treated as interchangeable by the Government of Canada to the detriment of the HEHE plan’s strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved design and deployment of NbS and NCS in Canada.