• Détermination des coûts du changement climatique : une étude de cas qui utilise des données sur le climat, sur l’utilisation des terres et sur la qualité de l’eau pour évaluer les impacts économiques du changement climatique sur la santé publique à l’échelle locale

      Renzetti, Steven (2015)
      Un des rapports possibles entre le changement climatique et la santé publique tient à la façon dont le changement climatique pourrait accroître la probabilité de l'exposition humaine à des pathogènes d’origine hydrique. Il se peut que le changement climatique ait cet effet à cause 1) de la survie accrue des agents pathogènes fécaux dans les sols attribuable aux températures et aux précipitations, 2) du transport de pathogènes par voie terrestre et de leur passage dans les sources d’eau, et 3) de l’accroissement des risques découlant de la défaillance des systèmes de traitement de l’eau et de désinfection provoquée par des inondations et des débordements des réseaux pluviaux, des réseaux d’égouts et des fosses septiques.
    • From Fracking Conflicts to Innovation Generation: a Case Study of Water Governance in Northeastern B.C.

      Moore, Michele-Lee (2015)
      The Horn River Basin overlaps with the Fort Nelson First Nation (FNFN) traditional territory, and has been an active site of hydraulic fracturing development. This has increased the demand for water in the Basin. While it is well established that effective water governance requires collaboration from a wide array of actors, barriers to including Indigenous Nations in water governance remain as a legacy of Canada’s colonial history. The Province’s approach to involving Indigenous Nations in water governance has largely been limited to consultation and accommodation and slow government-to-government negotiations. This approach has yet to yield significant collaboration. Research partner, the Fort Nelson First Nations (FNFN) Lands Department, has been both formally and informally engaged in ongoing negotiations with government, and with industry on various issues related to the hydraulic fracturing and water use for hydraulic fracturing in the Horn River watershed. Governance innovation was needed to break the deadlock, and it was clear that a social learning process would be necessary if industry, government, and FNFN were going to establish a shared vision for future water governance arrangements. As part of their efforts, the FNFN Lands Department began a community consultation process to develop their own FNFN water management strategy, and sought research to better understand the range of possible organizational structures that would support a more acceptable governance arrangement. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the existing conditions for social learning in the Horn River Basin, support the FNFN approach to developing a water management strategy through research on social learning and community-based planning processes, and to examine possible alternative governance models.
    • Accessibility, quality and safety of a First Nation’s drinking water supply

      Bharadwaj, Lalita; Christensen, Lisa; Zagozewski, Rebecca; Waldner, Shannon (2015)
    • Appliquer l’analyse de la résilience à un réseau hydrographique transfrontalier : le développement de substituts pour la gouvernance

      Plummer, Ryan (2015)
      L’incertitude et la complexité ont favorisé une évolution vers la perspective des systèmes adaptatifs complexes. La résilience socioécologique s’intéresse, conceptuellement, à la quantité de changement qu’un système peut supporter, au degré d’auto-organisation possible et à la capacité d’apprentissage et d’adaptation. La compréhension des seuils et les changements de régime sont essentiels pour l’adaptabilité et les transformations. D’un point de vue méthodologique, l’analyse et la mesure de la résilience faisaient appel à des trajectoires ou cadres pour la modélisation du système à l’étude et pour le développement de substituts de la résilience. L’application de la résilience et de ses processus analytiques a été principalement développée pour les écosystèmes. L’application de la résilience au monde social est originale et exige des considérations additionnelles. Il est donc possible de se concentrer sur des aspects de la gouvernance et de prendre appui sur les travaux antérieurs abordant la résilience de réseaux hydrographiques.
    • A pilot project to develop an integrated Canadian hydro-economic model

      Dupont, Diane (2015)
      Governments in Canada currently do not have the capacity to analyze the two-way relationship between economic activities and hydrologic conditions at the river basin level. Canada also does not have an integrated hydro-economic computer model for practical policy and decision-making towards sustainable water use. This project will demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of developing such integrated models. Furthermore, the model will provide governments with new ways to assess both the implications of economic development strategies on water resources and the implications of water allocation policies on local economic activity.
    • Measuring and Mobilizing Citizen Preferences for Source Water Protection

      Janmaat, John (2015)
      Three themes dominate environmental management: public participation, use of the best science, and cost effectiveness. While economic valuation has grown in prominence as an aid to achieving cost effectiveness, its methodology has been challenged as inappropriate for complex situations outside of respondents’ knowledge and experience. Preferences may be constructed through education and experience. Further, particularly for public goods, preferences may develop through a social discourse that confronts multiple value frames and in response to equity concerns. Some recent experiments have sought to elicit values for cost benefit analyses from deliberative groups with access to scientific information or expertise. This project furthers the development of deliberative valuation techniques through application in the Okanagan, and collaborative adaptation with other projects in the network. With a focus on source water protection in the Central Okanagan, a series of choice experiments will be conducted.
    • A Social Network Analysis For Knowledge Integration and Extension of WEPGN Research

      Bharadwaj, Lalita; Dupont, Diane; Bradford, Lori (2015)
      Solutions for complex water challenges not only require the development of novel data collection and modeling tools, but also the creation of strong research clusters and innovative knowledge mobilization instruments. There is a need to understand the focus and nature of interdisciplinary collaborative research, as well as the functionality and collaborative nature of the networks of researchers, extension and integration of partnerships. Deriving these solutions is essential for the integration and extension of research knowledge beyond disciplinary silos so that deeper understanding and relationship building between those who make water policy decisions and those who are impacted by them can be made.
    • Bridging the Gap: Exploring the Potential for Community-based Watershed Monitoring to Enhance Ecosystem Health and Watershed Governance in Canada

      Castleden, Heather (2015)
      Watershed monitoring is an essential component of watershed management; however, widespread federal and provincial decentralization efforts have resulted in reduced government funding for such monitoring. In response, communities are mobilizing to address this deficit in Canada by undertaking a practice called community-based watershed monitoring (CBWM). Although CBWM is being employed to address this gap, monitoring data collected by CBWM organizations remains underutilized by decision-makers in watershed governance. Moreover, CBWM organizations face significant challenges with knowledge exchange due to a lack of rigorous scientific protocols and high organizational turnover. At the same time, decision-makers are experiencing minimal capacity to utilize CBWM data due to restricted mandates and resources. Nonetheless, research suggests that communities significantly benefit from CBWM, but less evidence exists to confirm effects of CBWM activities on ecosystem health and there is scant literature about successful CBWM data integration. Anecdotal evidence regarding ecosystem benefits provided by CBWM exists in grey literature and on websites; however, more peer-reviewed literature must be established to support these claims. Uncertainty still remains regarding how to track the success of CBWM and watershed restoration efforts.
    • Applying Resilience Analysis to a Transboundary River System: Developing Surrogates for Governance

      Plummer, Ryan (2015)
      Uncertainty and complexity has prompted movement towards a complex adaptive systems viewpoint. Social-ecological resilience is conceptually concerned with the amount of change a system can withstand, the degree of self-organization possible, and the ability to learn and adapt. Understanding thresholds and regimes shifts are critical to adaptability and transformations. Methodologically, resilience analysis and measurement has involved pathways or frameworks for modeling the system of interest and developing resilience surrogates. Application of resilience and its analytical processes have primarily been developed for ecosystems. Application of resilience to the social world is unique and requires additional considerations. An opportunity thus exists to focus on aspects of governance and to build upon initial works addressing the resilience of river systems.
    • Combler le fossé : examiner la possibilité d’effectuer une surveillance communautaire des bassins hydrographiques pour améliorer la santé de l’écosystème et la gouvernance des bassins versants au Canada

      Castleden, Heather (2015)
      La surveillance constitue une composante essentielle de la gestion des bassins hydrographiques. Toutefois, les efforts de décentralisation généralisés aux échelons fédéral et provincial ont entraîné une réduction du financement gouvernemental à cet égard. En réaction, des collectivités se mobilisent pour combler ce déficit par la mise en place d’une pratique appelée surveillance communautaire des bassins hydrographiques (community-based watershed monitoring ou CBWM). Bien qu’on ait recours à la CBWM pour combler ce manque, les décideurs en matière de gouvernance des bassins continuent de sous-utiliser les données de suivi recueillies par les organismes responsables. En outre, l’échange de connaissances représente un défi pour les organismes de CBWM en raison de l’absence de protocoles scientifiques rigoureux et d’un roulement élevé du personnel au sein des organismes. En même temps, les décideurs ont très peu de moyens leur permettant d’utiliser les données de CBWM en raison de leurs mandats et ressources limités. Les recherches indiquent néanmoins que les collectivités profitent considérablement de la CBWM, mais il existe moins de preuves confirmant l’incidence des activités de la CBWM sur la santé des écosystèmes, et les publications sur l’intégration réussie de données de CBWM sont rares. On retrouve des preuves anecdotiques des avantages de la CBWM sur l’écosystème dans la documentation parallèle et sur Internet, mais il serait nécessaire de produire davantage de publications avec comité de lecture pour étayer ces allégations. L’incertitude persiste quant à la façon de mesurer la réussite de la CBWM et les efforts de restauration des bassins hydrographiques.
    • Social Justice Aspects of Water Allocation Mechanisms

      Bjornlund, Henning (2015)
      Water is scarce in southern Alberta, and climate change predictions suggest that water might be even scarcer. There is increasing pressure to leave more water in rivers for environmental purposes, which will further increase water scarcity for extractive users. There is also an urgent need to find mechanisms to allocate and reallocate water among competing uses, such as water for the environment and for extractive uses. Achieving these objectives within current water dependent communities will involve different socioeconmic impacts. The level of impact will depend on the policy choices made, the acceptability of such policies among stakeholders, water users reactions to such policies, and the ability of current water users to cope with less water. These issues are examined in this project.
    • Capacity Development for Integrated Land and Water Use Planning

      Xu, Wei (2015)
      Water governance frameworks have been widely adopted, however, there is as of yet little guidance on how such arrangements should operate, be evaluated, or be improved. There is a lack of clarity in identifying the components of these arangements, which hinders a consistent understanding of water governance. Furthermore, assorted water governance capacity elements are anaylzyed individually, but there is a lack of comprehensive framework upon which capacity of water governance can be assessed. Recent changes in Alberta’s water governance structure provide a window on water governance implementation and an opportunity to calrify important questions surrounding successful water governance.
    • Water Policy and Extreme Climate Events

      Horbulyk, Ted (2015)
      Canadians are at increasing risk from water‐related events such as multiyear droughts, flooding and/or significant changes in historical precipitation patterns. Extreme hydrological events can also hinder our ability to protect and manage groundwater resources. The sets of specific precautionary measures and responses that are available to private versus public water users and stakeholders are not well understood, nor are they necessarily enabled or encouraged by existing water policies. For example, there may be beneficial roles for selective infrastructure investments, revised water management protocols, or legal and regulatory changes, where these approaches can be considerably more effective, if undertaken in a coordinated manner. Some effects of increased flooding or drought can be more readily accommodated by some water using sectors than others, yet mechanisms to coordinate beneficial actions across sectors may be lacking. Although the returns to specific investment alternatives will be highly location and context‐specific, some types of prior investments or actions might have relatively higher returns than would come from remedial or adaptive measures alone.
    • Aspects des mécanismes de répartition de l’eau relevant de la justice sociale

      Bjornlund, Henning (2015)
      L’eau est rare dans le sud de l’Alberta, et pourrait le devenir encore plus selon les prévisions relatives aux changements climatiques. Il existe une pression croissante pour laisser plus d’eau dans les cours d’eau à des fins environnementales, ce qui aura pour effet d’accroître la rareté de l’eau pour les utilisateurs de l’industrie extractive. Il est également urgent de trouver des mécanismes d’attribution et de réattribution de l’eau entre utilisations concurrentes, à savoir l’environnement et l’industrie extractive. L’atteinte de ces objectifs au sein des collectivités actuelles tributaires de l’eau ne se fera pas sans diverses répercussions socioéconomiques. L’ampleur des répercussions dépendra des choix politiques, de l’acceptabilité de ces politiques pour les intervenants, des réactions à ces politiques des utilisateurs de l’eau et de la capacité des utilisateurs actuels à se satisfaire d’une moins grande quantité d’eau. Le projet étudie ces questions.
    • Réglementation des eaux et phénomènes climatiques extrêmes

      Horbulyk, Ted (2015)
      Les Canadiens courent un risque croissant de subir les répercussions d’événements associés à l’eau, telles que des sécheresses pluriannuelles, des inondations ou des modifications importantes dans la configuration des précipitations. Des phénomènes hydrologiques extrêmes pourraient également entraver notre capacité de protéger et de gérer nos ressources en eaux souterraines. Le lien entre l’ensemble de mesures de précaution et de protocoles d’intervention préventive offert aux utilisateurs privés, et celui destiné aux utilisateurs publics et intervenants, n’est pas bien compris, ni nécessairement activé ou favorisé par les réglementations des eaux existantes. Par exemple, des investissements sélectifs dans des infrastructures, des protocoles de gestion de l’eau révisés ou des changements de nature juridique et réglementaire sont susceptibles de jouer un rôle bénéfique, mais ces approches pourraient être autrement plus efficaces si elles étaient coordonnées. Certains secteurs d’exploitation de l’eau sont probablement mieux préparés que d’autres pour pallier l’augmentation des inondations ou des sécheresses, mais il est possible qu’il manque de mécanismes permettant de coordonner les mesures bénéfiques dans l’ensemble des secteurs. Bien que le rendement des choix particuliers en matière d’investissement dépende grandement de l’emplacement et du contexte, certains types d’investissements ou d’actions préalables pourraient avoir plus de retombées positives que les seules mesures correctives ou adaptatives.
    • Analysis of Avoided Water Utility Costs from Wildfire Risk Mitigation

      Emelko, Monica; Price, James; Dupont, Diane; Renzetti, Steven; Adamowicz, Vic (2015)

      Castleden, Heather (Canadian Water Network, 2015)
      Community-based water monitoring involves the engagement of community volunteers and non-government organization (NGO) staff in monitoring water quality and learning about their local watersheds. When government agencies and NGOs work together to develop these programs, it can increase resources available for monitoring, connect the scientific information to governmental management of watersheds, and promote community-led environmental stewardship. Done effectively, NGOs and government agencies will be better equipped to identify risks and other issues associated with watershed health and assess the success of their restoration activities.