• Détermination des coûts du changement climatique : une étude de cas qui utilise des données sur le climat, sur l’utilisation des terres et sur la qualité de l’eau pour évaluer les impacts économiques du changement climatique sur la santé publique à l’échelle locale

      Renzetti, Steven (2015)
      Un des rapports possibles entre le changement climatique et la santé publique tient à la façon dont le changement climatique pourrait accroître la probabilité de l'exposition humaine à des pathogènes d’origine hydrique. Il se peut que le changement climatique ait cet effet à cause 1) de la survie accrue des agents pathogènes fécaux dans les sols attribuable aux températures et aux précipitations, 2) du transport de pathogènes par voie terrestre et de leur passage dans les sources d’eau, et 3) de l’accroissement des risques découlant de la défaillance des systèmes de traitement de l’eau et de désinfection provoquée par des inondations et des débordements des réseaux pluviaux, des réseaux d’égouts et des fosses septiques.
    • Economic Analysis of Source Water Protection

      Adamowicz, Vic; Boxall, Peter; Lloyd-Smith, Pat; Appiah, Alfred; Silins, Uldis (2016)
    • Economic Analysis of Source Water Protection

      Adamowicz, Vic (2016)
      There is considerable interest, worldwide, in the evaluation of ecosystem services arising from management strategies such as source water protection (ecosystem management) as an alternative to infrastructure investments (capital, operating costs). However, there are relatively few detailed investigations of such systems. This project develops a conceptual framework and begins to construct the empirical analysis of the economic benefits and costs of source water protection. Project partners are interested in the extent to which landscape management can reduce water treatment costs and/or the risks of water supply interruptions, as well as how ecosystem service management interacts with capital investment requirements for water treatment. This project helps inform this process by assessing the costs and benefits of ecosystem services associated with water quality and quantity.
    • Ecosystem services for human well-being in the Credit River Watershed: A comparison of monetary valuation, multi-criteria non-monetary valuation and multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism

      Bunch, Martin; Dupont, Diane (2015)
      Human health and well-being is fundamentally dependent on services provided by ecosystems. However, the importance of ecosystem services (ES) to human well-being, and of managing ecosystem and watershed resources to maintain such services, is not commonly understood by the public, and not well-enough articulated by environmental management and governance organizations. Beneficiaries of such services are often unaware of the nature of their dependence upon supporting ecosystems. This is particularly true in urbanized watersheds. Watershed management organizations are aware of such benefits to watershed residents, but they very rarely track and report measures of human well-being to demonstrate the efficacy of their work. Relationships among environmental determinants of health and well-being are multiple, diffuse and interact in complex non-linear ways that are difficult to parse and isolate. This presents a problem for normal science, which reduces problems to smaller components in attempts to understand them. Without a way to demonstrate and communicate these relationships, the ES that underpin our health and well-being will continue to be ignored and undermined.
    • Evaluating collaborative approaches to governance for water allocation in Canada: Lessons from Ontario

      De loe, Rob (2015)
      Collaborative approaches to environmental governance are becoming commonplace around the western world. In Canada, all jurisdictions are using various forms of collaboration to address water issues. With few exceptions, the collaborative processes address problems that exist in whole or in part in rural areas. Thus, the agriculture sector is a critical participant. This certainly is the case in Ontario, especially in the case of collaborative processes designed to address low water conditions and droughts. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of collaborative approaches to dealing with water scarcity and conflicting demands for water. The Province of Ontario provided the institutional setting for the study. We were particularly concerned with the extent to which collaboration provides an effective and appropriate basis for water sharing in cases where agriculture is a prominent user. This led us to a focus on the Ontario Low Water Response (LWR) program. Ontario's Low Water Response program is the primary vehicle through which water shortages and droughts are addressed in the province. The program's overall functioning and effectiveness have been studied previously, but little or no attention has been given to understanding the extent to which this collaborative has produced outcomes that have been protected by the provincial government. This is a particularly important concern because the Province of Ontario, through the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (and Climate Change) has ultimate authority for dealing with water shortages through its Permit to Take Water Program. Experiences from around the world demonstrate that a failure to respect the outcomes of collaborative processes undermines their effectiveness and leads to considerable dissatisfaction. At the same time, from the perspective of democratic legitimacy, the province remains accountable. All jurisdictions are struggling to resolve the tension between these two objectives.
    • Extending Municipal Water Demand Forecasting Capacities

      Renzetti, Steven; Dupont, Diane; Price, James (Canadian Water Network, 2015)
    • Extending Municipal Water Demand Forecasting Capacities by Incorporating Behavioural Responses

      Renzetti, Steven (2014)
      Growing urban water demands are putting increasing pressure on the infrastructure of many water agencies, signaling the potential need for greater capital investments. Most water agencies forecast demand by multiplying future population estimates with historical per capita water use. However, this approach tends to be inaccurate by failing to account for other demand drivers, such as income, price and household appliance holdings. Providing water agencies with enhanced water forecasting capabilities that better reflect water users’ behaviour is one way these agencies can address this challenge. The proposed study builds upon the following initial project: Project (2008-2012): More Value from the Same Water: Maximizing Water's Sustainable Contribution to the Canadian Economy, Diane Dupont, Brock University This project sought to advance understanding of the factors (i) governing water use, (ii) influencing water recirculation decisions, and (iii) influencing adoption of residential water conserving technologies. The project produced statistical models of households' and manufacturing firms' water use. As an extension of this research, the proposed project is based on observations made by a number of experts in the municipal water sector. Specifically, it has been observed that water conservation departments are not always involved in demand forecasting, since this is done on the basis of infrastructure requirements. Previous experience in the energy industry has demonstrated how costly it can be to overbuild supply networks based on faulty demand forecasts that have failed to incorporate behavioural responses related to conservation. Thus, there is a need to bring together the behavioural sciences that underlie efforts to promote water conservation in the short-term with longer-term water demand forecasts.

      Renzetti, Steven; Dupont, Diane (Canadian Water Network, 2015)
      Water suppliers run the risk of overestimating future demands unless they account for households’ responsiveness to price changes and conservation measures. With the BROCKWATER program, planners working for small and medium size municipal water agencies have the capacity to account for households’ behaviour when making water demand projections.
    • Étude intégrée de l’utilisation des terres et de la qualité de l’eau : analyses économique, hydrologique et politique

      Bateman, Ian (2017)
      L’utilisation des terres et les changements afférents jouent un rôle majeur dans la détermination de la qualité de l’eau dans les rivières et les lacs. En effet, sans une compréhension claire des répercussions de l’utilisation des terres, l’efficacité de la gestion de la qualité de l’eau sera toujours compromise. Cependant, l’utilisation des terres repose sur un ensemble complexe de facteurs, notamment les politiques (p. ex. la politique agricole commune de l’UE), les forces du marché (p. ex. les changements dans le prix des matières premières, le coût des intrants), les variations environnementales transversales (le type de sol, les précipitations, etc.) et temporelles (les effets des changements climatiques tels que la variance de la température, etc.). Tout en tenant compte de ces facteurs, le projet met l’accent sur le rôle que revêt l’élaboration de politiques. Cependant, les politiques en matière d’utilisation des terres souffrent d’insuffisances systématiques en ce sens qu’elles se concentrent souvent sur un seul problème (p. ex. l’augmentation de la production agricole) sans tenir compte des effets indirects de ces changements (p. ex. la pollution des eaux). En outre, bon nombre de ces répercussions se produisent en dehors du domaine des valeurs marchandes, ce qui entrave davantage leur incorporation dans les systèmes de prise de décisions.
    • Évaluation des approches collaboratives en matière de gouvernance de la répartition de l’eau au Canada : leçons provenant de l’Ontario

      De loe, Rob (2015)
      Les approches concertées en matière de gouvernance de l’environnement sont devenues monnaie courante dans le monde occidental. Au Canada, toutes les administrations ont recours à diverses formes de collaboration pour aborder les enjeux de l’eau. À quelques exceptions près, les processus collaboratifs permettent de régler, en totalité ou en partie, les problèmes existant dans les zones rurales. C’est pourquoi le secteur agricole est un participant essentiel. C’est certainement le cas en Ontario, en particulier dans les processus de collaboration conçus pour gérer les niveaux d’eau insuffisants et la sécheresse. Cette recherche a pour objectif d’évaluer l’efficacité et la pertinence des approches de collaboration visant à gérer les manques d’eau et les demandes d’eau concurrentes. La Province de l’Ontario a fourni le cadre institutionnel de l’étude. Nous étions particulièrement intéressés par la mesure dans laquelle la collaboration offre une base efficace et appropriée pour le partage de l’eau dans des situations où l’agriculture en est un utilisateur de premier plan. Cela nous a amenés à nous concentrer sur le Programme d’intervention en matière de ressources en eau de l’Ontario. C’est principalement par le biais de ce programme que la province traite les pénuries d’eau et les sécheresses. Le fonctionnement et l’efficacité du programme ont déjà été étudiés dans leur ensemble, mais on n’avait alors que peu ou pas cherché à comprendre la mesure dans laquelle la collaboration avait donné des résultats entérinés par le gouvernement provincial. Il s’agit d’un sujet de préoccupation particulièrement important parce que la Province de l’Ontario, par le biais du ministère de l’Environnement (et de l’Action en matière de changement climatique) de l’Ontario détient le pouvoir ultime de gérer les pénuries d’eau par le biais de son Programme de réglementation des prélèvements d’eau. Des expériences dans le monde entier ont prouvé que le non-respect des résultats des processus collaboratifs compromet leur efficacité et mène à un mécontentement considérable. En outre, la province demeure responsable sur le plan de la légitimité démocratique. Toutes les administrations essaient de résoudre les divergences entre ces deux objectifs.
    • Évaluation des politiques en vue d’améliorer la qualité de l’eau dans les paysages agricoles

      Weersink, Alfons (2015)
      L’Île-du-Prince-Édouard (Î.-P.-É.) présente une dépendance écologique et économique unique envers la qualité de l’eau, qui est affectée directement par les systèmes agricoles. Les résidents de l’île tirent leur eau potable uniquement de l’eau souterraine, et cette dernière contribue à hauteur d’environ 70 % aux eaux de surface comme les ruisseaux, les rivières et les estuaires. La dépendance des écosystèmes et des résidents de l’Î.-P.-É. envers la qualité de l’eau souterraine coexiste avec un secteur agricole intensif qui revêt une grande importance pour l’économie de la province. La pomme de terre est cultivée sur plus de 40 % des 1,4 million d’acres (567 000 hectares) de terres cultivables, et cette denrée génère plus de 75 % des recettes totales provenant de cette terre cultivée. Le recours massif à l’azote pour produire ces cultures à valeur élevée sur les sols sablonneux de l’Î.-P.-É. a entraîné une importante contamination de l’eau souterraine par le nitrate. Bien que le problème des nitrates excessifs et de la qualité de l’eau ait incité des hydrogéologues et des agronomes à étudier l’impact des pratiques de gestion du territoire agricole sur les lixiviats de nitrate au moyen de techniques de modélisation hydrologique, les chercheurs ont effectué peu d’analyses économiques sur les meilleures pratiques de gestion visant à aborder le problème
    • From fracking conflicts to innova1on genera1on? A case study in Northeastern BC

      Moore, Michele-Lee; Shaw, Karena; Murray, Mathew; Lowe, Lana; Breiddal, Rossana (2015)
    • From Fracking Conflicts to Innovation Generation: a Case Study of Water Governance in Northeastern B.C.

      Moore, Michele-Lee (2015)
      The Horn River Basin overlaps with the Fort Nelson First Nation (FNFN) traditional territory, and has been an active site of hydraulic fracturing development. This has increased the demand for water in the Basin. While it is well established that effective water governance requires collaboration from a wide array of actors, barriers to including Indigenous Nations in water governance remain as a legacy of Canada’s colonial history. The Province’s approach to involving Indigenous Nations in water governance has largely been limited to consultation and accommodation and slow government-to-government negotiations. This approach has yet to yield significant collaboration. Research partner, the Fort Nelson First Nations (FNFN) Lands Department, has been both formally and informally engaged in ongoing negotiations with government, and with industry on various issues related to the hydraulic fracturing and water use for hydraulic fracturing in the Horn River watershed. Governance innovation was needed to break the deadlock, and it was clear that a social learning process would be necessary if industry, government, and FNFN were going to establish a shared vision for future water governance arrangements. As part of their efforts, the FNFN Lands Department began a community consultation process to develop their own FNFN water management strategy, and sought research to better understand the range of possible organizational structures that would support a more acceptable governance arrangement. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the existing conditions for social learning in the Horn River Basin, support the FNFN approach to developing a water management strategy through research on social learning and community-based planning processes, and to examine possible alternative governance models.
    • Great Lakes Governance Reform for Place-based Regeneration of the Natural and Built Environment

      Krantzberg, Gail (2014)
      Canadian municipalities are confronted by challenges related to continued growth, climate change and aging infrastructure, and the increasingly limited ability of receiving waterways to absorb the impact of stormwater runoff and pollution. There is increased recognition that integrated water, wastewater and stormwater management is required to ensure cost-effective water services as well as sustainable water resources to support public health, economy and environment now and in the future. In particular, this is a defining moment for the Great Lakes St. Lawrence region, with the opportunity to update the approaches taken for ecosystem improvement and protection in the region. The outcome of a 2007 review of the binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement resulted in a broad call for revisions to the Agreement, so that it can once again serve as a visionary document driving binational cooperation to address both long-standing and emerging Great Lakes environmental issues in the 21st century. The focus of the new agreement emphasizes the creation of a nearshore framework. While this term is still undefined, it reflects a policy need for a framework for scientific cooperation in the nearshore zone. In parallel, there is a need for a governance framework that enables place-based decision making for appropriate interventions, in order to promote resilience at the land-water interface. Governance frameworks for integrated water management are limited in Canada, and this research seeks to identify the most promising models.

      Bunch, Martin (Canadian Water Network, 2016)
      The Credit River watershed is located in one of the most densely populated regions of Canada and home to some of the most diverse landscapes and ecosystems in southern Ontario. Within all watersheds, especially highly populated ones like the Credit River watershed, environmental health is intrinsically linked to human health. For example, the percentage of canopy cover in a given area is an indicator of human and watershed health; more shade lowers surrounding temperature and helps to reduce rates of heat stress and skin cancer caused by sun exposure. Human health and well-being are greatly impacted by the health and quality of services provided by local ecosystems. This project aimed to make this relationship more clear and to enrich peoples’ understanding of their impacts on nature and, in turn, nature’s impact on their well-being.

      Bunch, Martin (Canadian Water Network, 2015)
      Human health and well-being are intrinsically linked to ecosystem services. Ecosystem services can be described as “the benefits people obtain from ecosystems,”1 and include lower health care costs, improved water quality or reduced energy costs. For example, the shade and wind-breaking effects created from planting more trees and vegetation can lead to decreased energy use and decreased costs for heating and cooling, as well as a decrease in the severity of floods.2,3,4 Improved air and water quality can lead to a decrease in health care costs due to fewer water-borne illnesses and better respiratory health.5 In Toronto alone, the health perception of planting an additional 10 trees in a city block is equivalent to living in a community with an increase of $10,000 income for every household in that block, and the health benefits are comparable to adding 7 years onto someone’s life.6 It seems that residents’ perception of such improvements in their health is related to the visual and accessible presence of trees (which can reduce stress, improve mood, lower blood pressure, etc.) and the effect that trees have on improving air quality.