• Niagara as a Timepiece

      Spencer, J.W. (Appletons' Popular Science Monthly, May 1896, pp.1-20., 1896-05)
      The article discusses the history of Niagara Falls, including the narrative of Hennepin in 1697. Also mentioned are the methods of calculating the age of Niagara Falls, "All attempts at reducing geological time to solar years meet with great difficulties, yet Niagara Falls have been used as a chronometer as frequently as any other natural phenomenon, and indeed Niagara is perhaps the best measurer that we have. Andrew Ellicott (in 1790) divided the length of the gorge by the supposed rate of recession of the falls, and assigned fifty-five thousand years as the age of the cataract. Forty years later Bakewell reduced the time to twelve thousand years, and a few years afterward Lyell's estimate of thirty-six thousand years became popular and remained so until about fifteen years ago. This method of dividing the length of the chasm by the rate of recession was correct as far as it went, but even the rate was not then known."
    • Niagara at the Battle Front

      Showalter, William Joseph (1917)
      The article discusses the harnessing of the Falls for power, but also "the artificial abrasive industry. How much its success means to America cannot be overestimated. Take the grinding machinery out of the automobile factories, remove it from the munition plants, eliminate it from the locomotive works, car foundries, and machine shops of the country and you would paralyze the nation's whole industrial system. And that would have happened ere now had not Niagara's artificial abrasives stepped in to save the day when the war shut out our natural supply of emery and corundum from Asia Minor."
    • Niagara Falls Already Ruined

      Adams, Alton D. (1906)
      The article begins with the statement "Niagara Falls are already ruined!" and goes on to say "it is to be considered that the American Falls are in much more imminent danger than the Canadian. The pipe line, canal, and tunnels that already pierce the cliffs between the upper river and Niagara Gorge, are large enough in themselves to carry twice the amount of water which runs over the American Falls." The following are sections of the article: Quick Action Needed, Question of Revenue, Deepen American Channel, American and Canadian Falls Compared, Proposed Line of New Channel, Dry Niagara, The Burton Resolution.
    • Niagara Falls and Their History

      Gilbert, G.K. (1895-09)
      An article about Niagara Falls, describing the following: The Drainage System, The Two Plains, The River and the Gorge, The Recession of the Cataract, Development of the Laurentian Lakes, The Whirlpool, Time"
    • Niagara Falls, 1852

      1852
      A brief description of the natural beauty of Niagara Falls. The description of the Falls begins to explain waterway system, "The Interior of America north of the source of the Mississippi is an elevated plain, from which flow countless rivers. Those which run eastward, collect themselves in and around Canada in five broad basins, and form the largest lakes of the western Continent: - Lake Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario. They are connected with each other by the descending river, which as it emerges from lake Ontario, [the latter lies about three hundred and fifty feet lower than the former,] is called the Niagara."
    • Niagara River, Gorge and Falls

      Hovey, H.C. (1886-09-11)
      The article discusses Professor Woodward's findings/formula of erosion at the Horseshoe Falls. Later in the article, Dr. Pohlman's views are also discussed.
    • The Over-Song of Niagara

      Logan, J.D. (1907-05-09)
      A song about the strength of the Falls, "Why stand ye, nurslings of Earth, before my gates, Mouthing aloud my glory and my thrall? Are ye alone the playthings of the fates, And only ye o'ershadowed with a pall? Turn from this spectacle of strength unbound-"
    • The Passing of Niagara

      Hartt, Mary B. (1901)
      The article begins by discussing the "green solitude" that existed at the time of Father Hennepin's first views of Niagara Falls. The article then starts to discuss the changes occurring as more power companies are involved, "For since 1886 it has been busily granting to all who asked practically unlimited right to divert the waters of the Niagara River above the Falls. Seven power companies have been organized since that date: The Niagara Falls Power Company, with the right to divert water sufficient to produce two hundred thousand horse-power, or 7,719, 360 gallons per minute, or six per cent of the total amount going over the Falls...And all these amazing privileges the open-handed State has dispensed without exacting so much as a penny in compensation for the enormously valuable franchises. It is no fault of the State Legislature that, for lack of capital or enterprise, some of these companies have allowed their charters to lapse, while others have been bought up by the Niagara Falls Power Company, so that but one company is in actual operation to-day - one, that is, besides the old Hydraulic Power Company, established in 1862, which originally held no grant from the State."
    • Photograph - The Royal Colonial Tour: The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall at Niagara Falls, 1901

      Miller, C.A. (1901-10-13)
      A photograph captioned "The Royal Colonial Tour: The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall at Niagara Falls, October 13." The photograph shows a large group of fifteen individuals standing in front of the rapids of Niagara Falls.
    • The Power by-law

      Ellis, P.W.; White, W.T. (1907-12-27)
      These are "proceedings at a special evening meeting of the Canadian club, at which the City Council of Toronto and the Electrical Development Company each provided a speaker to discuss 'The Power by-law' Mr. P.W. Ellis spoke in favor of the measure, while Mr. W. T. White spoke against it. The President, Mr. John Turnball, presided."
    • The Preservation of Niagara/The Niagara Gorge as a Chronometer/Niagara Falls Considered as a Source of Electrical Energy

      Wright, G. Frederick; Trowbridge, John (1885-05-15)
      Three entries in the publication Science: "The Preservation of Niagara", "The Niagara Gorge as a Chronometer", and "Niagara Falls considered as a Source of Electrical Energy". The first article mentions a group of individuals that worked to preserve Niagara, "Through the efforts of this Niagara-Falls association, an act was passed, in 1883, providing for a commission entitled 'The commissioners of the state reservation at Niagara and giving them power to proceed through the courts to condemn the lands needed. Ex-Lieut.-Gov. William Dorsheimer is the president of this board; and the other members are President Anderson of Rochester university, Hon. J. Hampden Robb, Hon. Sherman S. Rogers, and Andrew H. Green. With some modifications, they adopted the plan proposed by the state survey." The second article discusses the recession of the falls and how it has changed over many years. Included in the descriptions of changes to the landscape are two diagrams. The first is captioned "Section of the Strata along the Niagara River, From Lake Ontario to the Falls", and the second is "Falls of Niagara" showing a preglacial channel. The third article discusses the use of Niagara Falls for energy, "...the utilization of the energy of Niagara Falls as a source of light apply also to the question of the electrical transmission of power, with this exception, that the electrical transmission of power has not reached even the perfection which systems of electrical lighting have attained."
    • The Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park

      1897
      The article discusses the beauty of Queen Victoria Park and the recent Commissioners' Report which included "numerous illustrations, giving some of the most striking views both of the Falls and of the park...". Also mentioned, is the work of the ex-Governor-General, Lord Dufferin, "In the summer of 1878, on the occasion of a casual meeting with the then Governor of the State of New York, Lord Dufferin suggested joint action by the Government of that State and the Government of Ontario in order to rescue this glorious wonder of nature from the clutches of the vandals who, for their sordid purposes, were rapidly destroying all the natural beauties of the scene... On the 2nd of March, 1880, a memorial signed by nearly seven hundred literary and scientific men in England, the United States and Canada, was presented simultaneously to the Governor-General of Canada and the Governor of the State of New York, invoking the united action of both in carrying out Lord Dufferin's proposal."
    • The Romance of Transmission

      Stratton, George Frederic (1908-05)
      This article is describes the aesthetic elements of Niagara Falls and aspects and those related to the power company. The author uses detail to describe the hydro towers, for example: "The construction of this line, is of a highly developed and very substantial character. For the greater portion steel towers are used instead of the usual poles, and the ordinary span is five hundred and fifty feet, although at certain crossings of small lakes or swamps spans up to twelve hundred and fifty feet are found. The conducting cables are of aluminum, the largest consisting of nineteen strands. The insulators used on this, as on all other high voltage lines, are surprisingly large compared with those used commonly to support telegraph or lighting wires."
    • "The Scheme for Saving Life at Niagara" - The Graphic, 1898

      1898-04-02
      The article called "The Scheme for Saving Life at Niagara: A Life Saver at Niagara" discusses the number of "fatal accidents at Niagara Falls of late". It mentions the number of boats that become caught in the rapids and eventually end up over the falls. The proposed solution to the problem involves both New York State and the Ontario Government "stretching across the river a light iron cable at a point just below the line of navigation and just above the head of Goat Island, where the waters part. It is proposed to secure the cable just above the water by a number of buoys, and the supply the whole length with incandescent electric lights to mark its course at night".
    • The Seven Travelers at Niagara

      1859-03
      A short story telling of seven travelers to Niagara Falls and sites and sounds they encounter on their journey. The end of the story describes Niagara as "Stupendous as is the actual, the idea involved is even greater. In a mere physical point of view nothing is more magnificent. The water which foams and sparkles at your feet, which mounts to the sky in sheets of foam, or disports itself in rainbows, is a visitant from the far-off Andes. It has floated over that vast inland sea, Superior; past the pictured rocks, where the spirit of the storm, sleeping in the vast caverns beneath, is heard to breathe and gurgle, till the voyager is filled with terror lest he awake and find them shelterless. It has circled the Michigan, heaved the Indian canoe upon the mighty Huron, floated along the Erie, and now it comes thundering down the rapids of Niagara, never to rest till the St. Lawrence conducts it oceanward, there to resume its eternal cycles, and again to pour itself over Niagara."
    • Sketches of Niagara Falls

      1792
      Two sketches of Niagara Falls. The first is captioned "Scene at Niagara 1792" and the second "Scene below the Falls: Niagara 1792".
    • A Triangulation Survey: For a Tunnel at Niagara

      Mitchell, C.H. (1892)
      The article discusses a triangulation survey required to create a tunnel "a mile long and pass under the heart of the city, a triangulation survey for it must needs be made, of a sufficiently accurate character as to enable the centre lines to be located and produced from each of the three shafts. In a paper of this kind, it is not intended to describe in detail this proposed tunnel; the preliminary survey being the object. A few points, however, must be introduced, so as to convey a general idea of the nature of the work."
    • Turning The First Sod for the Municipal Power Line

      1908-11-28
      A clipping of the turning of the sod ceremony for the laying of the first municipal power line in Toronto. Included are photographs of Mr. J.H. Fryer of Galt, Mayor Oliver of Toronto, Sir James Whitney, and Hon. Adam Beck.
    • Water-Power in the East

      Laut, Agnes C. (1909)
      The article discusses "The Real Meaning of Conservation", "The Situation in New York", "Too Much Water and Too Little". The author mentions that "Conservation of water-power as it exists in actual practise does not mean the locking up of water-power against the public. It means the throwing open of that power to full development - dry season as well as rainy, not just a tenth of the possible power, but ten-tenths of the possible power; not just to the profit of one per cent of the population or two or three units of capital, but to the profit of every living soul in the State where that water-power exists. Conservation is not demanding that water-power be conserved in the West for the East, but that water-power be conserved in the West for the West, and in the East for the East."
    • Who Owns the Earth and How Did They Get it?

      Hyde, Henry M. (1909-02)
      The author mentions the issues associated with using hydroelectric power in Niagara Falls and discusses the issues that may arise based on past experiences, "To the myopic and indifferent public the idea of a few men getting control of the water supply and of drawing vast wealth from that control will sound like the foolish wail of a crack-brained sensationalist; it will arouse only a fatuous smile of ignorant contempt. But the readers of this magazine have heard of the turbine water-wheel; they know what is meant by the long distance transmission of electric power; they are able to realize what it means to hand over forever, as a free gift to a little coterie of men, the absolute control of the incalculable power developed by the rivers and streams of the United States. And - pray God- once they do understand the situation, they will not smile, but smite. The Congress of the United States and the legislatures of the various states are the danger points which must be constantly watched if the people are to be saved from spoliation."