• Sketches of Niagara Falls

      1792
      Two sketches of Niagara Falls. The first is captioned "Scene at Niagara 1792" and the second "Scene below the Falls: Niagara 1792".
    • An eye Sketch of the Falls of Niagara

      Stockdale, J. (1798-11-16)
      A map titled "An eye Sketch of the Falls of Niagara". The map shows Lake Ontario to Lake Erie and both the Canadian and American sides of the Niagara River.
    • Niagara Falls, 1852

      1852
      A brief description of the natural beauty of Niagara Falls. The description of the Falls begins to explain waterway system, "The Interior of America north of the source of the Mississippi is an elevated plain, from which flow countless rivers. Those which run eastward, collect themselves in and around Canada in five broad basins, and form the largest lakes of the western Continent: - Lake Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario. They are connected with each other by the descending river, which as it emerges from lake Ontario, [the latter lies about three hundred and fifty feet lower than the former,] is called the Niagara."
    • Niagara - Harper's New Monthly Magazine

      1853-08
      A descriptive journey around Niagara Falls. The article includes illustrations of "The Falls from above, on the Canada shore", "The Horseshoe Falls, From near the ferry, Canada shore", "The Tower, From near the ferry, Canada shore", "The Horseshoe Fall, from Bass rock", "The American and Horseshoe Falls, from Prospect Point", "The American Rapids, From the bridge", "The American Falls, from Hog's Back", "Horse-Shoe Fall, From below the Tower", "Entrance to Cave of the Winds", "The Tower, from the Head of the Bridge", "The Hermit's Cascade", "The Suspension Bridge, From the Maid of the Mist", "Bank below the Whirlpool", "The Whirlpool, from the Canada side", "The American Fall by moonlight", "Winter view at Niagara".
    • The Seven Travelers at Niagara

      1859-03
      A short story telling of seven travelers to Niagara Falls and sites and sounds they encounter on their journey. The end of the story describes Niagara as "Stupendous as is the actual, the idea involved is even greater. In a mere physical point of view nothing is more magnificent. The water which foams and sparkles at your feet, which mounts to the sky in sheets of foam, or disports itself in rainbows, is a visitant from the far-off Andes. It has floated over that vast inland sea, Superior; past the pictured rocks, where the spirit of the storm, sleeping in the vast caverns beneath, is heard to breathe and gurgle, till the voyager is filled with terror lest he awake and find them shelterless. It has circled the Michigan, heaved the Indian canoe upon the mighty Huron, floated along the Erie, and now it comes thundering down the rapids of Niagara, never to rest till the St. Lawrence conducts it oceanward, there to resume its eternal cycles, and again to pour itself over Niagara."
    • The Motive Power of Niagara Falls

      1878
      The brief article discusses the plan to "use the Fall to make compressed air, which is to be the means of transmitting motion to a distance." It also discusses the "practical working of the machinery" in a step by step process.
    • The Preservation of Niagara/The Niagara Gorge as a Chronometer/Niagara Falls Considered as a Source of Electrical Energy

      Wright, G. Frederick; Trowbridge, John (1885-05-15)
      Three entries in the publication Science: "The Preservation of Niagara", "The Niagara Gorge as a Chronometer", and "Niagara Falls considered as a Source of Electrical Energy". The first article mentions a group of individuals that worked to preserve Niagara, "Through the efforts of this Niagara-Falls association, an act was passed, in 1883, providing for a commission entitled 'The commissioners of the state reservation at Niagara and giving them power to proceed through the courts to condemn the lands needed. Ex-Lieut.-Gov. William Dorsheimer is the president of this board; and the other members are President Anderson of Rochester university, Hon. J. Hampden Robb, Hon. Sherman S. Rogers, and Andrew H. Green. With some modifications, they adopted the plan proposed by the state survey." The second article discusses the recession of the falls and how it has changed over many years. Included in the descriptions of changes to the landscape are two diagrams. The first is captioned "Section of the Strata along the Niagara River, From Lake Ontario to the Falls", and the second is "Falls of Niagara" showing a preglacial channel. The third article discusses the use of Niagara Falls for energy, "...the utilization of the energy of Niagara Falls as a source of light apply also to the question of the electrical transmission of power, with this exception, that the electrical transmission of power has not reached even the perfection which systems of electrical lighting have attained."
    • Buying Niagara

      The Nineteenth Century, December 1886, pp. 815-823., 1886
      The article discusses, in detail, the political process of procuring the area around Niagara Falls for preservation. The author writes "The love of nature and of the beautiful, patriotism and pride in retaining unimpaired this great wonder of the universe, had prevailed over indifference and self-interest."
    • Niagara River, Gorge and Falls

      Hovey, H.C. (1886-09-11)
      The article discusses Professor Woodward's findings/formula of erosion at the Horseshoe Falls. Later in the article, Dr. Pohlman's views are also discussed.
    • Illustration - Brock Memorial Church of St. Saviour, Queenston, Ont.

      Townsend, S.H. (1891)
      An illustration of the Brock memorial Church of St. Saviour, Queenston, Ont.
    • How Niagara's Power Will be Utilized

      Sellers, Coleman (1891-09)
      The article discusses the power that can be produced using Niagara Falls. The author mentions "The theoretical value of the water that passes over the crest of this mighty dam has been represented as requiring all the coal that is now being mined in the world daily burned as fuel to make steam sufficient to pump back the same quantity of water. All the industries of American could be operated by this power, if it could be wholly transmitted."
    • A Triangulation Survey: For a Tunnel at Niagara

      Mitchell, C.H. (1892)
      The article discusses a triangulation survey required to create a tunnel "a mile long and pass under the heart of the city, a triangulation survey for it must needs be made, of a sufficiently accurate character as to enable the centre lines to be located and produced from each of the three shafts. In a paper of this kind, it is not intended to describe in detail this proposed tunnel; the preliminary survey being the object. A few points, however, must be introduced, so as to convey a general idea of the nature of the work."
    • "A Day at Niagara" - Demorest's Family Magazine

      Johnston, Frances Benjamin (1893-08)
      An article describing the wonder of Niagara Falls and the many sites and sounds that surround it. Included is a map of Niagara Falls and some photographs/illustrations that include: Goat Island, The American Falls, Horseshoe Fall from Goat Island, General View of Niagara Falls, Horseshoe Fall from Goat Island, Park Phaeton, Rapids above American Falls, The Road to the Cave of the Winds (under the bridal veil), Guide and Costumes for Cave of the Winds, Three Sisters and Little Brother Islands, Bridge to Three Sisters Islands, Indian Women Selling Beadwork, The "Maid of the Mist" under Suspension Bridge, The Whirlpool, Cantilever Bridge, American Falls from The Canadian side, Above the Falls from the Canadian shore, Niagara Falls by moonlight, Below the American Falls in Winter, Trees draped with frozen spray.
    • A Few Remarks About the Niagara Gorge

      Buck, L.L. (1894)
      The author analyzes the gorge by dividing it into six parts and studying those portions of the gorge separately. The article then concludes that "at whatever point the falls have been, the river above them has spread over a much greater width than that of the present gorge, and that the falls themselves always left the gorge narrower than we now find it, to be afterward widened by atmospheric influences." Included in this article is a folded map that includes the Niagara River, Chippewa, Clifton and Niagara Falls.
    • The Diversion of the Niagara

      Brown, Curtis (1894-09)
      The article discusses the way in which the Falls is being diverted to create power. The article mentions, "It is not an exaggeration to say that the first receipt of Niagara Falls power in Buffalo will mark an epoch in the history of the development of electricity. That moment will determine, approximately, how far great currents of electricity can be carried by the latest methods, without a loss from the wires sufficient to make the cost of the current equal the cost of steam-power. Upon this test depends largely the question whether Niagara power shall be sent broadcast through half a dozen states, or whether it shall be confined to western New York, and the result will be looked forward to with anxious expectation."
    • Industrial Niagara/Wind as a Motive Power in the United States

      Abbott Vaughan, Arthur; Waldo, Frank (1895)
      The article discusses the industrialization of the area surrounding the power development. Also mentioned is the process of transmitting the power, "...it is necessary, in order to attain requisite economy, to raise the electrical pressure to 20,000 or even 50,000 volts, and to build the most perfect and substantial transmission lines. This part of the plant is as yet entirely incomplete, though the designs have been prepared with the greatest care and forethought. As the Niagara plant has received the attention of the best engineering talent in the world, and as the work has been prosecuted so slowly and thoroughly that experience is able to rectify errors as they occur, scientific success is assured. So it is the commercial aspect that is at once the most interesting and problematical. To what distance from Niagara can the Cataract Company deliver power, in competition with steam?"
    • Electrical Transmission at Niagara Falls

      Foster, Horatio A. (1895-01)
      The article details the process of the Niagara Power Company and how it began with "a charter for the Niagara Falls Power Co. was obtained from the Legislature on March 31, 1886, by citizens of Niagara Falls; but there being no available capital at hand, nothing was done until 1889, in June of which year the Cataract Construction Company was formed by Francis Lynde Stetson, Edward A. Wickes and William B. Rankine, all of New York City. On July 5th of the same year, having secured the necessary capital, the Cataract Construction Company contracted with the Niagara Falls Power Company to construct all the necessary works and plant for developing and utilizing the first 100,000 H.P. of the great water power."
    • Niagara Falls and Their History

      Gilbert, G.K. (1895-09)
      An article about Niagara Falls, describing the following: The Drainage System, The Two Plains, The River and the Gorge, The Recession of the Cataract, Development of the Laurentian Lakes, The Whirlpool, Time"
    • Harnessing Niagara

      Forbes, George (1895-10)
      The author mentions his role in the engineering work to do with the power companies at Niagara Falls. At the conclusion of the article he mentions, "If required, the power could be sent much more than a hundred miles, and still be more economical than steam, even though coal is cheap there. In countries where power is much wanted, but very costly, the electrical transmission will be successful at distances of many hundreds of miles."
    • Niagara as a Timepiece

      Spencer, J.W. (Appletons' Popular Science Monthly, May 1896, pp.1-20., 1896-05)
      The article discusses the history of Niagara Falls, including the narrative of Hennepin in 1697. Also mentioned are the methods of calculating the age of Niagara Falls, "All attempts at reducing geological time to solar years meet with great difficulties, yet Niagara Falls have been used as a chronometer as frequently as any other natural phenomenon, and indeed Niagara is perhaps the best measurer that we have. Andrew Ellicott (in 1790) divided the length of the gorge by the supposed rate of recession of the falls, and assigned fifty-five thousand years as the age of the cataract. Forty years later Bakewell reduced the time to twelve thousand years, and a few years afterward Lyell's estimate of thirty-six thousand years became popular and remained so until about fifteen years ago. This method of dividing the length of the chasm by the rate of recession was correct as far as it went, but even the rate was not then known."