A Longitudinal Examination of Indirect Effects involving Parenting, Temperament, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence
The current dissertation examined whether authoritative parenting was indirectly related to adolescent antisocial behavior over time through adolescent temperament, and whether adolescent temperament was indirectly related to authoritative parenting over time through antisocial behavior. My original contribution to knowledge through this dissertation was to demonstrate the longitudinal, direct and indirect relations between a broad view of parenting, several aspects of temperament, and antisocial behavior during early adolescence. A community sample of 10- to 15-year-old male and female adolescents and their mothers responded to questionnaires at two times spanning 18 months. The dissertation is comprised of three studies, each focusing on a different aspect of temperament: effortful control in Study 1, affiliation in Study 2, and frustration in Study 3. In each study, two different models were tested. In the first model, path analyses were used to simultaneously estimate the direct and indirect effects between each of the Time 1 parenting dimensions (psychological autonomy granting, acceptance-involvement, knowledge, tracking, and limit setting) and Time 2 antisocial behavior through Time 2 adolescent temperament. In the second model, path analyses were used to simultaneously estimate the direct and indirect effects of Time 1 temperament on Time 2 parenting through Time 2 antisocial behavior. The analyses in the current studies used a statistically conservative approach in that the initial levels of both the mediators and outcome variables were controlled for in the path models. Results showed that even with high stability of temperament and antisocial behavior, parenting still related to changes over time in antisocial behavior directly and indirectly through adolescent temperament. Also, even with high stability of antisocial behavior and parenting, temperament still related to changes over time in parenting directly and indirectly through antisocial behavior. Overall, the current dissertation builds on the case for a temperament-based foundation of antisocial behavior, and shows that the link between parenting and antisocial behavior is sometimes indirect through adolescent temperament which itself uniquely accounts for changes in parenting, directly and indirectly through antisocial behavior. Applied implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.