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Reporting of adverse events in muscle strengthening interventions in youth: A systematic reviewTo document the extent to which AEs, resulting from intervention studies targeting muscle-strengthening training (MST) in youth, are reported by researchers.
Skin blood flow responses to acetylcholine and local heating at rest and 60%V O2max, and associated nitric oxide contribution, in boys vs. girlTo determine sex-related differences in the skin-blood-flow (SkBF) response to exercise, local heating, and acetylcholine (ACh) in children. Additionally, the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) was examined. Methods: Forearm SkBF during local heating (44˚C), ACh iontophoresis, and exercise (30 min cycling, 60% OV 2max) was assessed, using Laser-Doppler fluxmetry, in 12 boys and 12 girls (7–13 yrs old), with and without NO synthase inhibition, using Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) iontophoresis. Results: Local-heating-induced and ACh-induced SkBF increase were not different between boys and girls (Local heating: 1445±900% and 1432±582% of baseline, , p=.57; ACh: 673±434% and 558±405% of baseline, respectively, p=0.18). Exercise-induced increase in SkBF was greater in boys than girls (528±290 and 374±192% of baseline, respectively, p=0.03). L-NAME blunted the SkBF response to ACh and during exercise (p<0.001), with no difference between sexes. Summary: SkBF responses to ACh and local heat stimuli were similar in boys and girls, while the increase in SkBF during exercise was greater in boys. The apparent role of NO was not different between boys and girls. It is suggested that the greater SkBF response in the boys during exercise is related to greater relative heat production and dissipation needs during this exercise intensity. The response to body-size-related workload should be further examined.
Attentional biases and recognition accuracy: What happens when multiple own- and other-race faces are encountered simultaneously?Adults recognize own-race faces more accurately than other-race faces. We investigated three characteristics of laboratory investigations hypothesized to minimize the magnitude of the own-race recognition advantage (ORA): lack of competition for attention and instructions that emphasize individuating faces during the study phase, and a lack of uncertainty during the test phase. Across two experiments, participants studied faces individually, in arrays comprising multiple faces and household objects, or in naturalistic scenes (presented on an eye-tracker); they were instructed to remember everything, memorize faces, or form impressions of people. They then completed one of two recognition tasks--an old/new recognition task or a lineup recognition task. Task instructions influenced time spent looking at faces but not the allocation of attention to own- versus other-race faces. The magnitude of the ORA was independent of both task instructions and test protocol, with some modulation by how faces were presented in the study phase. We discuss these results in light of current theories of the ORA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Peer idealization, internal examples, and the meta-philosophy of genius in the epistemology of disagreementThe epistemology of disagreement (EoD) has developed around a highly idealized notion of epistemic peers. The analysis of examples in the literature has not been very effective at mitigating this idealization, due to a tendency to focus on cases of extant philosophical disputes. This makes it difficult to spotlight the respects in which discussants are non-ideal, because the discussants are disciplinary colleagues. At the same time, widespread attitudes in academic philosophy about the importance of raw intelligence in doing philosophy can mislead us about the fragility and unpredictability of expertise. The use of such examples is not strong methodology.