• Cognitive testing of the Colon Cancer Screening Behaviours Survey with South Asian immigrants in Canada

      Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Bierman, Arlene S.; Beaton, Dorcas (Springer, 2017)
      The purpose of this study was to cognitively test the Urdu and English language versions of a survey to assess colon cancer screening behaviours among South Asian immigrants in Canada.
    • The Effect of Different Phases of Synchrony on Pain Threshold in a Drumming Task

      Sullivan, Philip; Blacker, Mishka (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2017-06-22)
      Behavioral synchrony has been linked to endorphin activity (Cohen et al., 2010; Sullivan and Rickers, 2013; Sullivan et al., 2014; Tarr et al., 2015, 2016; Weinstein et al., 2016). This has been called the synchrony effect. Synchrony has two dominant phases of movement; in-phase and anti-phase. The majority of research investigating synchrony’s effect on endorphin activity has focused on in-phase synchrony following vigorous activities. The only research to investigate the effects of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity found that anti-phase synchronized rowing did not produce the synchrony effect (Sullivan et al., 2014). Anti-phase synchrony, however, is counterintuitive to the sport of rowing and may have interfered with the synchrony effect. This study investigated the effect of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity in a different task (i.e., drumming). University students (n D 30) were asked to drum solo and in in-phase and anti-phase pairs for 3 min. Pain threshold was assessed as an indirect indicator of endorphin activity prior to and following the task. Although the in-phase synchrony effect was not found, a repeated measures ANOVA found that there was a significant difference in pain threshold change among the three conditions [F(2,24) D 4.10, ! N2 D 0.255, p < 0.05). Post hoc t-tests showed that the anti-phase condition had a significantly greater pain threshold change than both the solo and in-phase conditions at p < 0.05. This is the first time that anti-phase synchrony has been shown to produce the synchrony effect. Because anti-phase drumming may have required more attention between partners than in-phase synchrony, it may have affected self-other merging (Tarr et al., 2014). These results support Tarr et al.’s (2014) model that multiple mechanisms account for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold, and suggest that different characteristics of the activity may influence the synchrony effect.
    • Rosemary Extract as a Potential Anti-Hyperglycemic Agent: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

      Naimi, Madina; Vlavcheski, Filip; Shamshoum, Hesham; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2017-09-01)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease on the rise and with huge economic burden to health care systems around the globe, results from defects in insulin action (termed insulin resistance) combined with impaired insulin secretion. Current methods of prevention and treatments for insulin resistance and T2DM are lacking in number and efficacy and, therefore, there is a need for new preventative measures and targeted therapies. In recent years, chemicals found in plants/herbs have attracted attention for their use as functional foods or nutraceuticals for preventing and treating insulin resistance and T2DM. Rosemary is an evergreen shrub indigenous to the Mediterranean region and South America, which contains various polyphenols. Rosemary extract and its polyphenolic constituents have been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic properties. The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies examining the anti-diabetic effects of rosemary extract and its polyphenolic components and highlights the known mechanism of action.
    • Sex hormones play a role in vulnerability to sleep loss on emotion processing tasks

      Lustig, K. A.; Stoakley, E. M.; MacDonald, K. J.; Geniole, S. N.; McCormick, C. M.; Cote, K. A. (Elsevier, 2017-10-06)
      The central aim of this study was to investigate hormones as a predictor of individual vulnerability or resiliency on emotion processing tasks following one night of sleep restriction. The restriction group was instructed to sleep 3 a.m.–7 a.m. (13 men, 13 women in follicular phase, 10 women in luteal phase of menstrual cycle), and a control group slept 11 p.m.–7 a.m. (12 men, 12 follicular women, 12 luteal women). Sleep from home was verified with actigraphy. Saliva samples were collected on the evening prior to restriction, and in the morning and afternoon following restriction, to measure testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. In the laboratory, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during presentation of images and faces to index neural processing of emotional stimuli. Compared to controls, sleep-restricted participants had a larger amplitude Late Positive Potential (LPP) ERP to positive vs neutral images, reflecting greater motivated attention towards positive stimuli. Sleep-restricted participants were also less accurate categorizing sad faces and exhibited a larger N170 to sad faces, reflecting greater neural reactivity. Sleep-restricted luteal women were less accurate categorizing all images compared to control luteal women, and progesterone was related to several outcomes. Morning testos- terone in men was lower in the sleep-restricted group compared to controls; lower testosterone was associated with lower accuracy to positive images, a greater difference between positive vs neutral LPP amplitude, and lower accuracy to sad and fearful faces. In summary, women higher in progesterone and men lower in testos- terone were more vulnerable to the effects of sleep restriction on emotion processing tasks. This study highlights a role for sex and sex hormones in understanding individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss.
    • Rosmarinic Acid, a Rosemary Extract Polyphenol, Increases Skeletal Muscle Cell Glucose Uptake and Activates AMPK

      Vlavcheski, Filip; Naimi, Madina; Murphy, Brennan; Hudlicky, Tomas; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2017-10-07)
      Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p < 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p < 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p < 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by RA, while AMPK phosphorylation was increased. The RAstimulated glucose uptake was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor compound C and was not affected by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). The current study shows an effect of RA to increase muscle glucose uptake and AMPK phosphorylation. RA deserves further study as it shows potential to be used as an agent to regulate glucose homeostasis.
    • Effects of Dairy Consumption on Body Composition and Bone Properties in Youth: A Systematic Review

      Kouvelioti, Rozalia; Josse, Andrea R; Klentrou, Panagiota (American Society for Nutrition, 2017-10-11)
      Background: According to previous reviews, there is no clear evidence on the effects of dairy consumption on body composition and bone properties in pediatric populations. There is a need for further assessment of existing findings and the methodologic quality of studies before summarizing the evidence. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the quality, methodologies, and substantive findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of dairy consumption on body size, body composition, and bone properties in children and adolescents. Methods: After searching PubMed and Google Scholar up to December 2016, 15 RCTs were retained and included in this systematic review for further analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed via the Jadad scale; detailed methodologic and statistical characteristics were evaluated, and the main findings were summarized. Results: The effects of dairy consumption were found to be significant for bone structure and nonsignificant for body size and composition. Eight of the 11 RCTs that assessed bone found significant effects (P , 0.05) for bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), with an average 8% increase in BMD after 16 mo of dairy consumption. Conversely, significant effects (P , 0.05) were found only in 2 of the 14 RCTs that focused on body size (i.e., height and weight) and in only 1 of the 11 RCTs that focused on body composition (i.e., lean mass). Conclusions: The systematic consumption of dairy products may benefit bone structure and development, but it does not appear to affect body composition or body size in children and adolescents. On the basis of the Jadad scale, the methodologic quality of the 15 RCTs was rated as good overall. However, there were methodologic disparities and limitations that may have led to nonsignificant results, particularly for body size and composition. Future RCTs designed to address these limitations are warranted.
    • Carbon translocation from a plant to an insect-pathogenic endophytic fungus

      Behie, Scott W.; Moreria, Camila C.; Sementchoukova, Irina; Barelli, Larissa; Zelisko, Paul M.; Bidochka, Michael J. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-12-18)
      Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using 13 CO 2 , we show the incorporation of 13 C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of 13 C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex. We determined the amount of 13 C present in root-associated fungal biomass over a 21-day period by extracting fungal carbohydrates and analysing their composition using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These findings are evidence that the host plant is providing photosynthate to the fungus, likely in exchange for insect-derived nitrogen in a tripartite, and symbiotic, interaction.