A. Discovery of novel reactivity under the Sonogashira reaction conditions B. Synthesis of functionalized BODIPYs and BODIPY-sugar conjugates
Yalagala, Ravi Shekar
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A. During our attempts to synthesize substituted enediynes, coupling reactions between terminal alkynes and 1,2-cis-dihaloalkenes under the Sonogashira reaction conditions failed to give the corresponding substituted enediynes. Under these conditions, terminal alkynes underwent self-trimerization or tetramerization. In an alternative approach to access substituted enediynes, treatment of alkynes with trisubstituted (Z)-bromoalkenyl-pinacolboronates under Sonogashira coupling conditions was found to give 1,2,4,6-tetrasubstituted benzenes instead of Sonogashira coupled product. The reaction conditions and substrate scopes for these two new reactions were investigated. B. BODIPY core was functionalized with various functional groups such as nitromethyl, nitro, hydroxymethyl, carboxaldehyde by treating 4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7,8-pentamethyl-2,6-diethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene with copper (II) nitrate trihydrate under different conditions. Further, BODIPY derivatives with alkyne and azido functional groups were synthesized and conjugated to various glycosides by the Click reaction under the microwave conditions. One of the BODIPY–glycan conjugate was found to form liposome upon rehydration. The photochemical properties of BODIPY in these liposomes were characterized by fluorescent confocal microscopy.