Role of Phosphorylation of the Oxysterol Binding Protein (OSBP) in (PI(4)P) and Sterol-Containing Membrane Recognition and Binding
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Studies have demonstrated that the oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) acts as a phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP)-sterol exchanger at membrane contact sites (MCS) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. OSBP is known to pick up phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4)P) from the ER, transfer it to the trans-Golgi in exchange for a cholesterol molecule that is then transferred from the trans-Golgi to the ER. Upon further examination of this pathway by Ridgway et al. (1), it appeared that phosphorylation of OSBP played a role in the localization of OSBP. The dephosphorylation state of OSBP was linked to Golgi localization and the depletion of cholesterol at the ER. To mimic the phosphorylated state of OSBP, the mutant OSBP-S5E was designed by Ridgway et al. (1). The lipid and sterol recognition by wt-OSBP and its phosphomimic mutant OSBP-S5E were investigated using immobilized lipid bilayers and dual polarization interferometry (DPI). DPI is a technique in which the protein binding affinity to immobilized lipid bilayers is measured and the binding behavior is examined through real time. Lipid bilayers containing 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and varying concentrations of PI(4)Ps or sterols (cholesterol or 25-hydroxycholesterol) were immobilized on a silicon nitride chip. It was determined that wt-OSBP binds differently to PI(4)P-containing bilayers compared to OSBP-S5E. The binding behavior suggested that wt-OSBP extracts PI(4)P and the change in the binding behavior, in the case of OSBP-S5E, suggested that the phosphorylation of OSBP may prevent the recognition and/or extraction of PI(4)P. In the presence of sterols, the overall binding behavior of OSBP, regardless of phosphorylation state, was fairly similar. The maximum specific bound mass of OSBP to sterols did not differ as the concentration of sterols increased. However, comparing the maximum specific bound mass of OSBP to cholesterol with oxysterol (25-hydroxycholesterol), OSBP displayed nearly a 2-fold increase in bound mass. With the absence of the wt-OSBP-PI(4)P binding behavior, it can be speculated that the sterols were not extracted. In addition, the binding behavior of OSBP was further tested using a fluorescence based binding assay. Using 22-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (22-NBD cholesterol), wt-OSBP a one site binding dissociation constant Kd, of 15 ± 1.4 nM was determined. OSBP-S5E did not bind to 22-NBD cholesterol and Kd value was not obtained.