The association between maternity insurance, residence status and selected perinatal outcomes among Chinese women
Objective: To investigate the impact of maternity insurance and maternal residence on birth outcomes in a Chinese population. Methods: Secondary data was analyzed from a perinatal cohort study conducted in the Beichen District of the city of Tianjin, China. A total of 2364 pregnant women participated in this study at approximately 12-week gestation upon registration for receiving prenatal care services. After accounting for missing information for relevant variables, a total of 2309 women with single birth were included in this analysis. Results: A total of 1190 (51.5%) women reported having maternity insurance, and 629 (27.2%) were rural residents. The abnormal birth outcomes were small for gestational age (SGA, n=217 (9.4%)), large for gestational age (LGA, n=248 (10.7%)), birth defect (n=48 (2.1%)) including congenital heart defect (n=32 (1.4%)). In urban areas, having maternal insurance increased the odds of SGA infants (1.32, 95%CI (0.85, 2.04), NS), but decreased the odds of LGA infants (0.92, 95%CI (0.62, 1.36), NS); also decreased the odds of birth defect (0.93, 95%CI (0.37, 2.33), NS), and congenital heart defect (0.65, 95%CI (0.21, 1.99), NS) after adjustment for covariates. In contrast to urban areas, having maternal insurance in rural areas reduced the odds of SGA infants (0.60, 95%CI (0.13, 2.73), NS); but increased the odds of LGA infants (2.16, 95%CI (0.92, 5.04), NS), birth defects (2.48, 95% CI (0.70, 8.80), NS), and congenital heart defect (2.18, 95%CI (0.48, 10.00), NS) after adjustment for the same covariates. Similar results were obtained from Bootstrap methods except that the odds ratio of LGA infants in rural areas for maternal insurance was significant (95%CI (1.13, 4.37)); urban residence was significantly related with lower odds of birth defect (95%CI (0.23, 0.89)) and congenital heart defect (95%CI (0.19, 0.91)). Conclusions: whether having maternal insurance did have an impact on perinatal outcomes, but the impact of maternal insurance on the perinatal outcomes showed differently between women with urban residence and women with rural residence status. However, it is not clear what are the reason causing the observed differences. Thus, more studies are needed.