INFLUENCE OF INCREASED EXTRACELLULAR LEUCINE ON THE PROTEIN METABOLIC RESPONSES DURING OSMOTIC STRESS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increased extracellular leucine concentration on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle cells when exposed to 3 different osmotic stresses. L6 skeletal muscle cells were incubated in either a normal or supplemental leucine (1.5mM) medium set to hypo-osmotic (230 ± 10 Osm), iso-osmotic (330 ± 10 Osm) or hyper-osmotic (440 ± 10 Osm) conditions. 3H-tyrosine was used to quantify protein synthesis. Western blotting analysis was performed to determine the activation of mTOR, p70S6k, ubiquitin, actin, and μ-calpain. Hypo-osmotic stress resulted in the greatest increase in protein synthesis rate under the normal-leucine condition while iso-osmotic stress has the greatest increase under the elevated-leucine condition. Elevated-leucine condition had a decreased rate in protein degradation over the normal condition within the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (p<0.05). Leucine and hypo-osmotic stress therefore creates a favourable environment for anabolic events to occur.