The effects of manipulated augmented sensory feedback on error detection when using a touch screen
The purpose of the present study was to determine which augmented sensory modality would best develop subjective error-detection capabilities of learners performing a spatial-temporal task when using a touch screen monitor. Participants were required to learn a 5-digit key-pressing task in a goal time of 2550 ms over 100 acquisition trials on a touch screen. Participants were randomized into 1 of 4 groups: 1) visual-feedback (colour change of button when selected), 2) auditory-feedback (click sound when button was selected), 3) visual-auditory feedback (both colour change and click sound when button was selected), and 4) no-feedback (no colour change or click sound when button was selected). Following each trial, participants were required to provide a subjective estimate regarding their performance time in relation to the actual time it took for them complete the 5-digit sequence. A no-KR retention test was conducted approximately 24-hours after the last completed acquisition trial. Results showed that practicing a timing task on a touch screen augmented with both visual and auditory information may have differentially impacted motor skill acquisition such that removal of one or both sources of augmented feedback did not result in a severe detriment to timing performance or error detection capabilities of the learner. The present study reflects the importance of multimodal augmented feedback conditions to maximize cognitive abilities for developing a stronger motor memory for subjective error-detection and correction capabilities.