Investigation of the Biological Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Extract in Human Lung Cancer Cells
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Cancer cells display enhanced growth rates and a resistance to apoptosis. Lung cancer accounts for the most cancer related deaths and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an aggressive form of lung cancer, accounting for almost 80% of all lung cancer cases. The phytochemical rosemary extract (RE) has been reported to have anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo however, limited evidence exists regarding the effects of RE and its polyphenolic constituents carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) in lung cancer. The present study shows RE, CA and RA inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation and survival in various NSCLC cell lines and that CA and RA interact synergistically to inhibit cell proliferation. Moreover RE, CA and RA are capable of altering activation and/or expression of Akt, ERK and AMPK, signaling molecules which regulate cell proliferation and survival. RE shows potential as an anticancer agent and should be further investigated.