Diastereoselective Synthesis of Planar Chiral N-Substituted Ferrocenes Derived from Epimeric Imidazolones and their Application to Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Quinolines
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This thesis describes the synthesis and use of an N-substituted ferrocene bearing a proline-derived chiral directing group and diastereoselective lithiation-electrophile quench of the pro-Sp hydrogen of the ferrocene to give planar chiral products in >95:5 dr. The auxiliary group is found to be stable to lithium bases of types RLi and R2NLi giving the same diastereoselectivity. The anti- epimer of the previously mentioned syn auxiliary induces lithiation of pro Rp rather than pro Sp hydrogen in >95:5 dr. Upon electrophile quench and elimination, the enantiomer of the syn-derived planar chiral imidazolone is obtained. Hence, this method provides a practical way to prepare planar chiral enantiomers in this series without the use of a more expensive D-proline derived starting material. The syn and anti epimers have β, γ-stereogenic centers and the origin of stereoselectivity in lithiation appears to be driven by the conformational bias exerted by the β-silyloxy moiety in each chiral auxiliary. In the thesis, this conclusion is supported using insensitivity of lithiation selectivity to the bulkiness of the base, comparison of enantiomers, deuteration experiments, nOe difference studies and computational modeling of the ground states and lithiation transition states for both substrates. The products are then converted to ligand precursors to make iridium and rhodium complexes. Among them, one of the cationic iridium complex is found to be effective in the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2-substituted quinolines with enantioselectivities up to 80% at pressures as low as 5 atm.