Two Levels of Motivation and Two Types of Well-Being: Relations Between General and Goal-Specific Motivations, and Eudaimonic and Hedonic Well-Being
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In this thesis I assess the individual and joint predictive associations and effects between multiple motivation and well-being concepts. In particular, three pairs of motivation concepts (intrinsic/extrinsic, approach/avoidance, and eudaimonic/hedonic) are assessed simultaneously at two levels of analysis (disposition and goal) and examined in relation to two types of well-being (eudaimonic and hedonic) in two studies, one correlational and the other experimental. Study 1: Using a correlational design, participants (N = 325, M age = 19.10, 87% female) completed self-report measures assessing six motivation and two well-being concepts. Exploratory factor analyses were used to assess patterns of associations among the motivational constructs. Results indicated that constructs displaying conceptual and empirical similarities co-occur, particularly, intrinsic, approach and eudaimonic motivation. Regression models were used to assess predictive relations between the motivational constructs and well-being. Both types of well-being were predicted by approach and avoidance dispositions, and hedonic goals. Additionally, eudaimonic well-being was uniquely predicted by eudaimonic dispositions and goals, and intrinsic dispositions; and hedonic well-being was uniquely predicted by extrinsic dispositions and approach goals. The patterns of associations among motivational constructs, and similarities and differences in the ways they predict each type of well-being, are discussed. Study 2: Using an experimental design, participants (N = 447, M age = 19.30, 88% female) were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental conditions, each involving a manipulation aimed at priming combinations of the three pairs of motivational constructs at the goal level. Participants then completed measures of both types of well-being. ANOVAs were used to assess the main effects and interactions of experimental condition for each of the three pairs of motivational constructs on well-being. Main effects of experimental conditions were non-significant. However, results indicated that focus on each of the three pairs of motivational constructs predicted well-being and that the manipulation impacted well-being indirectly, through experimentally-shifted motivational focus. Few interactions emerged. Implications for future experimental research and the conceptual integration of motivation and well-being constructs are discussed. In conclusion, Studies 1 and 2 inform the motivation and well-being fields in novel ways and provide preliminary steps towards studying these fields from an integrated and comprehensive motivational framework.