Greener Golf Operations: A Comparative Case Study of Ontario Golf Courses Engaged in Environmental Sustainability Initiatives
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This research explored environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives at five top-ranked Ontario golf courses that were members of the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf (ACSP). Research Questions: (1) How are golf courses adapting to safeguard the natural environment? (2) Why or why not are golf courses moving to ES? and (3) What are the arising barriers to ES in golf and how can they be overcome; what role does communication play? Overall, the research was framed with an adaptation of the dimensions of convergence by Houlihan (2012), including the motives, inputs, implementation, momentum, and impact. Additionally, impression management and message framing constructs were utilized to address the issue of communicating ES initiatives. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observations, and unobtrusive document collection. Environmental aspects of the examination were guided by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Requirements and Guidance for Organizers of Sustainable Events and Sustainable Sport and Event Toolkit (SSET).