Non-pollen palynomorphs and thecamoebians as proxies of environmental and anthropogenic change: a case study from Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada
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The distribution of aquatic microfossils and pollen in the long core from Lake Simcoe (LS07PC5) shows synchronous response since deglaciation, highlighting the potential of little-known non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP) as paleolimnological indicators. Upcore variations in NPP, thecamoebians and pollen reflect hydrological and climatic variations: onset of the Main Lake Algonquin, the draining of Lake Algonquin, the early Holocene drought, the midto late Holocene climate shifts including mid-Holocene drought and the Little Ice Age, and human settlement. The distribution of microfossils in the short cores (CB1 and SB1) shows the level of eutrophication decreasing gradually from Cook’s Bay to the Atherley Narrows outflow due to differences in the extent of anthropogenic impact and cumulative retention of phosphorous within sediments. Changes in assemblages and concentration of NPP within the cores reflect the history of settlement within Lake Simcoe basin, recording temporal differences in eutrophication.