METHOXYPYRAZINES AND LADYBUG TAINT IN WINES
Botezatu, Andreea Ioana
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Methoxypyrazines are aroma active compounds found in many wine varietals. These compounds can be of either grape-derived nature or can be introduced into wines via Coccinellidae beetles. Regardless of their origin, methoxypyrazines can have either a beneficial role for wine quality, contributing to the specificity of certain wine varietals (Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Sauvignon blanc) or a detrimental role, particularly at higher concentrations, resulting in overpowering green, unripe and herbaceous notes. When methoxypyrazines of exogenous nature are responsible for these unpleasant characteristics, wines are considered to be affected by what is generally known as Ladybug taint (LBT). This is work is a collection of studies seeking to create a sensitive analytical method for the detection and quantification of methoxypyrazines in wines; to investigate the role of different Coccinellidae species in the tainting of wines with LBT and identify the main compounds in ladybug tainted wines responsible for the typical green herbaceous characteristics; to determine the human detection threshold of 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine in wines as well as investigate its contribution to the aroma of wines; and finally to survey methoxypyrazine concentrations in a large set of wines from around the world. In the first study, an analytical method for the detection and quantitation of methoxypyrazines in wines was created and validated. The method employs multidimensional Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry to detect four different methoxypyrazines (2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine, isobutyl methoxypyrazine, secbutyl methoxypyrazine and isopropyl methoxypyrazines) in wine. The low limits of detection for the compounds of interest, improved separation and isolation capabilities, good validation data, as well as the ease of use recommend this method as a good alternative to the existing analytical methods for methoxypyrazine detection in wine. In the second study the capacity of two Coccinellidae species, found in many wine regions – Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata - to taint wines is evaluated. Coccinella septempunctata is shown to be as capable as causing LBT in wines as Harmonia axyridis. Dimethyl methoxypyrazine, previously thought to be of exogenous nature only (from Coccinellidae haemolymph), is also detected in control (untainted) wines. The main odor active compounds in LBT wines are investigated through Aroma Extract Dilution Assay. These compounds are identified as isopropyl methoxypyrazine, sec- and iso- butyl methoxypyrazine. In the third study, the human detection threshold for dimethyl methoxypyrazine in wine is established to be 31 ng/L in the orthonasal modality and 70 ng/L retronasally. After wines spiked with various amounts of dimethyl methoxypyrazine are evaluated sensorally, dimethyl methoxypyrazine causes significant detrimental effects to wine aroma at a concentration of 120 ng/L. The final study examines methoxypyrazine (dimethyl methoxypyrazine, isopropyl methoxypyrazine, secbutyl methoxypyrazine and isobutyl methoxypyrazine) concentrations in 187 wines from around the world. Dimethyl methoxypyrazine is detected in the majority of the red wines tested. Data are interpreted through statistical analyses. A new measure for predicting greenness/herbaceousness in wines - methoxypyrazine “total impact factor” is proposed.