Freshwater dinoflagellates as proxies of cultural eutrophication: a case study from Crawford Lake, Ontario
Krueger, Andrea M
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Crawford Lake, Ontario, provides an ideal natural laboratory to study the response of freshwater dinoflagellates to cultural eutrophication. The anoxic bottom waters that result from meromixis in this small (2.4 ha) but deep (24 m) lake preserve varved sediments that host an exceptional fossil record. These annual layers provide dates for human activity (agriculture and land disturbance) around the lake over the last millennium by both Iroquoian village farmers (ca. A.D. 1268-1486) and Canadian farmers beginning ~A.D. 1883. The well established separate intervals of human activity around Crawford Lake, together with an abundance of available data from other fossil groups, allow us to further investigate the potential use of the cyst of freshwater dinoflagellates in studies of eutrophication. Cyst morphotypes observed have been assigned as Peridinium willei Huitfeldt-Kaas, Peridinium wisconsinense Eddy and Peridinium volzii Lemmermann and Parvodinium inconspicuum (Lemmermann) Carty. The latter two cyst-theca relationships were determined by culturing and by the exceptional preservation of thecae of P. inconspicuum in varves deposited at times of anthropogenic reductions in dissolved oxygen.