TIME COURSE OF SIGNALING PROCESSES INVOLVED WITH EXTRACELLULAR OSMOTIC - INDUCED GLUCOSE UPTAKE IN MAMMALIAN SKELETAL MUSCLE
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Extracellular hyper-osmotic (HYPER) stress increases glucose uptake to defend cell volume, when compared to iso-osmotic (ISO) conditions in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine a time course for changes in common signaling proteins involved in glucose uptake during acute hyper-osmotic stress in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle. Rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were excised and incubated in a media formulated to mimic ISO (290 ± 10 mmol/kg) or HYPER (400 ± 10 mmol/kg) extracellular condition (Sigma Media-199). Signaling mechanisms were investigated by determining the phosphorylation states of Akt, AMPK, AS160, cPKC and ERK after 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation. AS160 was found to be significantly more phosphorylated in HYPER conditions compared to ISO after 30 minutes (p<0.01). It is speculated that AS160 phosphorylation increases glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content at the cell surface thereby facilitating an increase in glucose uptake under hyper-osmotic stress.