Perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent depressive symptoms : a longitudinal examination
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Parental monitoring has long been stressed as an important parenting practice in reducing adolescent susceptibility to depression. An extensive review by Stattin and Kerr (2000), however, , revealed that researchers had confounded perceptions of parental monitoring (i.e., parental solicitation and control) with parental knowledge, and neglected to consider the role of adolescent willingness to disclose. In the present study, adolescents (N = 1995; 51.3% female) were surveyed at two time points (grade 10 and 11). To disentangle the role of perceived parenting, three central issues were addressed. First, the present study examined whether parental knowledge, adolescent disclosure, and parental monitoring (i.e., parental solicitation and control) in grade 10 predicted adolescent depression in grade 11. Second, the predictive value of adolescent depression in grade lOon parental knowledge, adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control in grade 11 was considered. Lastly, associations among parental knowledge, adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control were examined over time. Findings indicated that higher levels of parental knowledge were associated with subsequent lower levels of depressive symptoms, and that depressive symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge over time. Both adolescent willingness to disclose and parental control predicted higher parental knowledge. These findings underscore the role of adolescent and perceived parent contributions to parental knowledge, and highlight the importance of perceived parental knowledge in predicting reduced adolescent susceptibility to depression.