Living between two cultures : personality and adaptation in Chinese immigrant youth /
Chui Choo Tan, Felicia.
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The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between shyness and acculturation modes of Chinese immigrant youth in Canada and whether shyness moderates the relationship between acculturation and adaptation. In addition, I examined whether shyness, in conjunction with sociability, moderates the relationship between acculturation and adaptation. Ninety-nine young Chinese immigrants (42 men), ranging in age from 16 to 26 years old, completed a questionnaire that assessed their demographic information, acculturation modes, shyness, sociability, psychological adaptation Oife satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression), and socio-cultural adaptation. Results showed that Chinese orientation was significantly and negatively correlated with age, generation status, English proficiency, and length of residence in Canada. In contrast, Canadian orientation was significantly and positively correlated with generation status, English proficiency, and length of residence in Canada. Canadian orientation was also significantly and negatively correlated with shyness and positively correlated with sociability and psychological and socio-cultural adaptation. Participants who were shyer were more likely to have poorer psychological and socio-cultural adaptation, and to report lower life satisfaction and self-esteem and higher depression. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that Chinese immigrant youth who were separated had higher scores on shyness than those who were integrated and assimilated. There were no significant differences in shyness between youth who were separated and youth who were marginalized, nor were there differences between youth who were integrated and those who were assimilated. Furthermore, integrated Chinese youth reported significantly higher scores in sociability than those who were separated and marginalized but not significantly higher than those who were assimilated.' Shyness did not moderate the relationship between acculturation modes and psychological and socio-cultural adaptation. Unfortunately, the hypothesis to examine if shyness, in combination with sociability, moderated the relationship between acculturation and psychological adaptation could not be tested in the present study because of limitations in cell sizes. The findings suggested that how Chinese immigrant youth acculturate in the receiving country might not be the crucial factor in determining their adaptation. Instead, other factors, such as personality characteristics and nature of the acculturating group, may playa more crucial role. Shyness may have important ramifications for the acculturation and adaptation of young Chinese immigrants to a new society.