Thermoacclimatory variations in the activities of enzymes implicated in ion transport in the rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri
McCarty, Lynn Scott.
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Two groups of rainbow trout were acclimated to 20 , 100 , and 18 o C. Plasma sodium, potassium, and chloride levels were determined for both. One group was employed in the estimation of branchial and renal (Na+-K+)-stimulated, (HC0 3-)-stimulated, and CMg++)-dependent ATPase activities, while the other was used in the measurement of carbonic anhydrase activity in the blood, gill and kidney. Assays were conducted using two incubation temperature schemes. One provided for incubation of all preparations at a common temperature of 2S oC, a value equivalent to the upper incipient lethal level for this species. In the other procedure the preparations were incubated at the appropriate acclimation temperature of the sampled fish. Trout were able to maintain plasma sodium and chloride levels essentially constant over the temperature range employed. The different incubation temperature protocols produced different levels of activity, and, in some cases, contrary trends with respect to acclimation temperature. This information was discussed in relation to previous work on gill and kidney. The standing-gradient flow hypothesis was discussed with reference to the structure of the chloride cell, known thermallyinduced changes in ion uptake, and the enzyme activities obtained in this study. Modifications of the model of gill lon uptake suggested by Maetz (1971) were proposed; high and low temperature models resulting. In short, ion transport at the gill at low temperatures appears to involve sodium and chloride 2 uptake by heteroionic exchange mechanisms working in association w.lth ca.rbonlc anhydrase. G.l ll ( Na + -K + ) -ATPase and erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase seem to provide the supplemental uptake required at higher temperatures. It appears that the kidney is prominent in ion transport at low temperatures while the gill is more important at high temperatures. 3 Linear regression analyses involving weight, plasma ion levels, and enzyme activities indicated several trends, the most significant being the interrelationship observed between plasma sodium and chloride. This, and other data obtained in the study was considered in light of the theory that a link exists between plasma sodium and chloride regulatory mechanisms.