Petrography, geochemistry and structure of the Timmins area, Ontario
Payne, Craig William Charles.
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Regional structural analysis of the Timmins area indicates four major periods of tectonic deformation. The DI deformation is characterized by a series of isoclinal FI folds which are outlined in the study area by bedding, pillow tops and variolitic flows. The D2 deformation developed the Porcupine Syncline and refolded the Fl folds about a NE. axis. A pervasive S2 foliation developed during low grade (greenschist) regional metamorphism associated with the D2 deformation. The S2 foliation developed south of the Destor-Porcupine Break. The third phase of tectonic D3 deformation is recognized by the development of a S3 sub-horizontal crenulation cleavage which developed on the plane of the S2 foliation. No meso scopic folds are associated with this deformation. The 8 3 crenulation cleavage is observed south of the Destor-Porcupine Break. The D4 tectonic deformation is recorded as a subvertical S4 crenulation cleavage which developed on the plane of the S2 foliation and also offsets the S3 crenulation cleavage. Macroscopic F4 folds have refolded the F2 axial plane. No metamorphic recrystallization is associated with this deformation. The S4 crenulation cleavage is observed south of the Destor-Porcupine Break. Petrographic evidence indicates that the Timmins area has been subjected to pervasive regional low grade (greenschist) metamorphism which has recrystallized the original mineralogy. South of the study are~ the Donut Lake ultramafic lavas have been subjected to contact medium grade (amphibolite facies) metamorphism associated with the intrusion of the Peterlong Lake Complex. The Archean volcanic rocks of the Timmins area have been subdivided into komatiitic, tholeiitic and calcalkaline suites based on Zr, Ti0 2 and Ni. The three elements were used because of their r e lative immobility during subsequent metamorphic events. Geochemical observations in the Timmins area indicates that the composition of the Goose Lake and Donut Lake Formations are a series of peridotitic, pyroxenitic and basaltic komatiites. The Lower Schumacher Formation is a sequence of basaltic komatiites while the upper part of the Lower Schumacher Formation is an intercalated sequence of basaltic komatiites and low Ti0 2 tholeiites. The variolitic flows are felsic tholeiites in composition and geochemical evidenc e sugg ests that they developed as a n immiscible splitting of a tholeiitic magma. The Upper Schumacher Formation is a sequence of tholeiitic rocks dis p laying a mild iron enrichment. The Krist and Boomerang Formations are the felsic calc-alkaline rocks of the study area which are characteristically pyroclastic. The Redstone Fo rmation is dominantly a calc-alkali ne sequence of volcani c rocks whose minor mafic end me mbers exposed in 1t.he study hav e basaltic komatiitic compositions. Geochemical evidence sugges ts that the Keewatin-type se dimentary rocks have a composition similar to a quartz diorite or a granodiorite. Fi e l d obs ervations and petrographic evidence suggests that they were derived fr om a distal source and now repr esent i n part a turbidite sequence. The Timiskaming-type sedimentary rocks approach the c omp osi t ion of the felsic calc-alkaline rocks of the study area . The basal conglomerate in the study are a sugge s ts that th e uni t was derived fr om a proximal source. Petrographic and ge ochemical evidence suggests that the peridotitic and pyroxenitic komatiites originated as a 35-55% partial melt within the mantle, in excess of 100 Km. depth. The melt ros e as a diapir with the subsequent effusion of the ultramafic lavas, The basaltic komatiites and tholeiitic rocks originated in the mantle from lesser degrees of partial melting and fractionated in low pressure chambers. Geochemical evidence suggests a "genetic link" between the basaltic komatiites and tholeiites, The calc-alkaline rocks developed as a result of the increa.se In PO in the magma chamber. The felsic calcalkaline rocks are a late stage effusion possibly the last major volcanic eruptions in the area.