Permissivity of human HeLa cells to bovine adenovirus type 2 (BaV2 infection
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Infection of hUlnan cells by bovine adenovirlls type 2 (BAV2) is abortive. To obtain a better understanding of this pllenomel1011, and in particular to identify Wllich steps in the viral replicative cycles are altered dllring this virlls-host cells interaction, we have llndertaken a detailed study of BAV2 infections of the nonpennissive hUlnan IIeLa cells. Using autoradiography and 3H-thymidine-labeled vvhole virus particles for infection of HeLa cells, vve determined that viral attachluent appears normal. Furthermore, Southern analysis revealed that internalization and transport to the nuclells occurs in BAV2 infected HeLa cells. To investigate viral DNi\ synthesis, infectivity assays involving hydroxyllrea, a viral DN-A synthesis inhibitor, were carried out. The results revealed that Bft:LV2 DNA synthesis does not occur in HeLa cells. Fllrtller investigations into viral early gene expression by northern blotting analyses indicated that HeLa cells fail to support expression of EIA. This suggested that abortive infection by BAV2 could be attributed to faiiure of EIA to express. To test the possibility that the failure to express ElA was due to the inability of the host cell to recognize the E lA prOlTIoter, ,ve carried out transient expression transfection experiments using plaslnids \vith the bacterial lacZ linder the control of either BAV2 or i\d5 EIA promoter. X-gal histochelIlical assays sho\ved expression of lacZ from the Ad5 ElA prOlnoter but no expression of lacZ [rOln the BAV2 EIA prOlTIoter. This further suggests that the abortive infection b:y BAV2 could be attributed to failure of EIA to express dlle to a nonfllnctional prOlTIoter in hlunan cells. Thus we speClllated that abortive infection of HeLa cells by adenoviruses may be averted by providing EtA functions in trans. To demonstrate this, we coinfected HeLa cells with Ad5 and BAV2, reasoning that Ad5 could cOlnpensate for EIA deficiency in BAV2. OUf results showed that BAV2 DNA synthesis was indeed Sllpported in HeLa cells coinfected with Ad5dlE3 as revealed by Southern analysis. In contrast, coinfection of HeLa cells \vith BAV2 and Ad5dlElE3 mutallt did not support BLt\V2 DNA synthesis. Interestingly, BAV2 failed to replicate in 293 cells which are constitlltively expressing the El genes. This could ilnply that El is necessary but not sufficient to avert the failllre ofBAV2 to undergo productive infection ofhulnan cells.