Paragenetic history of the Ordovician Trenton Group carbonates, Southwestern Ontario
Colquhoun, Ian M.
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Geochemical examination of the rock matrix and cements from core material extracted from four oil wells within southwestern Ontario suggest various stages of diagenetic alteration and preservation of the Trenton Group carbonates. The geochemical compositions of Middle Ordovician (LMC) brachiopods reflect the physicochemical water conditions of the ambient depositional environment. The sediments appear to have been altered in the presence of mixed waters during burial in a relatively open diagenetic microenvironment. Conodont CAl determination suggests that the maturation levels of the Trenton Group carbonates are low and proceeded at temperatures of about 30 - 50°C within the shallow burial environment. The Trenton Group carbonates are characterized by two distinct stages of dolomitization which proceeded at elevated temperatures. Preexisting fracture patterns, and block faulting controlled the initial dolomitization of the precursor carbonate matrix. Dolomitization progressed In the presence of warm fluids (60 75°C) with physicochemical conditions characteristic of a progressively depleted basinal water. The matrix is mostly Idiotopic-S and Idiotopic-E dolomite, with Xenotopic-A dolomite dominating the matrix where fractures occur. The second stage of dolomitization involved hydrothermal basinal fluid(s) with temperatures of about 60 - 70°C. These are the postulated source for the saddle dolomite and blocky calcite cements occurring in pore space and fractures. Rock porosity was partly occluded by Idiotopic-E type dolomite. Late stage saddle dolomite, calcite, anhydrite, pyrite, marcasite and minor sphalerite and celestite cements effectively fill any remaining porosity within specific horizons. Based on cathode luminescence, precipitation of the different diagenetic phases probably proceeded in open diagenetic systems from chemically homogeneous fluids. Ultraviolet fluorescence of 11 the matrix and cements demonstrated that hydrocarbons were present during the earliest formation of saddle dolomite. Oxygen isotope values of -7.6 to -8.5 %0 (PDB), and carbon isotope values of - 0.5 and -3.0 %0 (PDB) from the latest stage dog-tooth calcite cement suggest that meteoric water was introduced into the system during their formation. This is estimated to have occurred at temperatures of about 25 - 40°C. Specific facies associations within the Trenton Group carbonates exhibit good hydrocarbon generating potential based on organic carbon preservation (1-3.5%). Thermal maturation and Lopatin burial-history evaluations suggest that hydrocarbons were generated within the Trenton Group carbonates some time after 300 Ma . Progressively depleted vanadium trends measured from hydrocarbon samples within southwestern Ontario suggests its potential use as a hydrocarbon migration indicator on local (within an oilfield) and on regional scales.