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Microstructural and geochemical investigation of North American lower-middle Paleozoic trilobites and recent arthropods

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dc.contributor.author McAllister, John E. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2009-07-09T18:39:05Z
dc.date.available 2009-07-09T18:39:05Z
dc.date.issued 1989-07-09T18:39:05Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10464/1959
dc.description.abstract Trilobites ¥tere collected from Ordovician and Devonian formations of Ontario} New York} Ohio} Oklahoma} and Indiana. Diversity was generally low} but 19..?telllS and Ph..~tY>ps ¥tere the most abundant species from the Ordovician and Devonian} respectively. Recent marine arthropods ¥tere collected from the Atlantic shore of the middle Florida Keys} and from the Pacific and lagoonal waters at Cape Beale} B. C. Fresh-water arthropods were collected along the shore of the Severn River in northcentral Ontario. Cuticles ¥tere analyzed for major} minor and trace elements, 180 and 13C isotopes, as ¥tell as examined by scanning electron micr?scope to identify original and diagenetic fabrics. Examination of trilobite cuticles by scanning electron microscope revealed several microstructures consistent with those observed in Recent arthropods. Microstructures} such as setae and tegumental gland duct openings} in like sized Lim/IllS and Isoteline trilobites may indicate common ancestral origins for these organisms, or simply parallel cuticle evolutions. The dendritic microstructure, originally' thought to be a diagenetic indicator, was found in Recent specimens and therefore its presence in trilobites may be suggestive of the delicate nature of diagenesis in trilobites. The absence of other primary microstructures in trilobites may indicate alteration, taxonomic control} or that there is some inherent feature of S EM examination which may' not allow detection of some features} while others are apparently visit·le onl~1 under SH.·1. The region of the cuticle sampled for examination is also a major influence in detecting pristine microstructures, as not all areas of trilobite and Recent arthropod cuticles will have microstructures identifiable in a SEM study. Subtleties in the process of alteration, however} ma~·· leave pristine microstructures in cuticles that are partial~/ silicified or do 10m itized, and degree and type of alteration may vary stratigraphically and longitudinally within a unit. The presence of fused matrices, angular calcite rhombs, and pyrite in the cuticle are thought to be indicative of altered cuticles, although pyritization may not affect the entire cuticle. t-~atural processes in Recent arthropods, such as molting, lead to variations in cuticle chemistries, and are thought to reflect the area of concentration of the elements during calcification. The level of sodium in Recent arthropods was found to be higher than that in trilobites, but highly mobile when sUbjected to the actions of VY'€'athering. Less saline water produced lovy'€'r magnesium and higher calcium values in Recent specimens .. and metal variations in pristine Ordovician trilobite cuticle appears to follow the constraints outlined for Recent arthropods, of regulation due to the chemislry of the surrounding medium. In diagenetic analysis, sodium, strontium and magnesium proved most beneficial in separating altered from least altered trilobites. Using this criterion, specimens from shale show the least amount of geochemical alteration, and have an original mineralogy of 1.7 - 2.4 mole % MgC03 (8000 t(> 9500 ppm magnesium) for both /s>..?/e/11S lJA'i.riff!11S and PseIAit'11J17ites I..itmirpin..itl/~ and 2.8 - 3.3 mole % MgC03 (5000 to 7000 ppm magnesium) for Ph.i{).?PS This is Slightly lower than the mineralogy of Recent marine arthropods (4.43 - 12.1 mole % MgC03), and slightly higher than that of fresh-water crayfish (0.96 - 1.82 mole % MgC03). Geochemically pristine trilobites were also found to possess primary microstructures. Stable isotope values and trends support the assertion that marine-meteoriclburial fluids were responsible for the alteration observed in a number of the trilobite specimens. The results of this stUdy suggest that fossil material has to be evaluated separately along taxonomic and lithological lines to arrive at sensible diagenetic and e nvironmenta I interpretations. en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.publisher Brock University en_US
dc.subject Trilobites. en_US
dc.subject Arthropoda--North America. en_US
dc.subject Paleontology|yPaleozoic. en_US
dc.subject Paleontology--North America. en_US
dc.subject Geochemistry. en_US
dc.subject Microstructure. en_US
dc.title Microstructural and geochemical investigation of North American lower-middle Paleozoic trilobites and recent arthropods en_US
dc.type Electronic Thesis or Dissertation en_US
dc.degree.name M.Sc. Earth Sciences en_US
dc.degree.level Masters en_US
dc.contributor.department Department of Earth Sciences en_US
dc.degree.discipline Faculty of Mathematics and Science en_US


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