Ionic regulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus, acclimated to constant and diurnally-cycling temperature conditions
Koss, Teddy Frank.
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The effects of a diurnal sine-wave temperature cycle (250 +- 5° C) on the wa terI-e etc r o1 yt est a t us 0 f gol df1' Sh , Carassius auratus, was assessed through determination of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl- and water content in plasma, Red blood cells and muscle tissue. Animals were also acclimated to o 0 0 static temperatures (20 C, 25 c, 30 C) corresponding to the high, low and mid-ooint temperatures of the cycle. All groups were sampled at 03:00, 09:00, 15:00 and 21:00 hr. Hemoglobin content and packed cell volume, as well as electrolyte and 'water levels were determined for each animal and red cell ion concentrations and ion : hemoglobin ratios estimated. Cycled animals were distinct from those at constant temperatures in several respects. Hematological parameters were elevated above those of animals at constant temperature and were, on a diurnal basis, more stable. Red blood cell electrolyte levels varied in an adaptively appropriate fashion to cycle temperatures. This was not the case in the constant temperature groups_ Under the cycling regime, plasma ion levels were more diurnally stable than those of constant temperature fish. Although muscle parameters in cycled fish exhibited more fluctuation than was observed in plasma, these also tended to be relatively more stable than was the caseErythrocytic data are discussed in terms of their effects on hemoglobin-oxygen affinity while plasma and muscle observations were considered from the standpoint of overall water-electrolyte balance. In general, cycled fish appeared to be capable of stabilizing overall body fluid composition, while simultaneously effecting adaptively-appropriate modifications in the erythrocytic ionic microenvironment of hemoglobin. The sometimes marked diurnal variability of water-electrolyte status in animals held at constant temperature as opposed to the conservation of cycled fish suggests that this species is, in some fashion, programmed for regulation in a thermally-fluctuating environment. If this interpretation is valid and a phenomenon of general occurrence, some earlier studies involving constant acclimation of eurythermal species normally occupying habitats which vary in temperature on a daily basis may require reconsideration. at constant temperature.