Effects of intracerebroventricular bombesin administration on local cerebral glucose utilization in the restrained and unrestrained rat
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Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of bombesin (BN) induces a syndrome characterized by stereotypic locomotion and grooming, hyperactivity and sleep elimination, hyperglycemia and hypothermia, hyperhemodynamics, feeding inhibition, and gastrointestinal function changes. Mammalian BN-like peptides (MBNs), e.g. gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), Neuromedin C (NMC), and Neuromedin B (NMB), have been detected in the central nervous system. Radio-labeled BN binds to specific sites in discrete cerebral regions. Two specific BN receptor subtypes (GRP receptor and NMB receptor) have been identified in numerous brain regions. The quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose ([14C]20G) autoradiographic method was used to map local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) in the rat brain following ICV injection of BN (vehicle, BN O.1Jlg, O.5Jlg). At each dose, experiments were conducted in freely moving or restrained conditions to determine whether alterations in cerebral function were the result of BN central administration, or were the result of BN-induced motor stereotypy. The anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV) (p=O.029), especially its ventrolateral portion (AVVL) (p<O.0005), exhibited increased rates of metabolism under both restraint conditions. The effect was treatment dependent without interaction of the restraint conditions. Of all the regions that were reported to have high densities of BN receptors, the internal granular layer of the olfactory bulb (IGr) (p=O.028), and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh) (p=O.003) exhibited BN treatment effects. BN effects on LCGU were also observed in the median eminence (ME) (p=O.011). Restraint, however, decreased LCGU in the lateral dorsal thalamic nucleus, ventrolateral and dorsomedial parts (LOVL and LOOM) (p=O.044, p=O.009), and the lateral geniculate (LG) (p=O.027). In sum, BN induced a marked and highly localized alteration in cerebral metabolism within parts of the anterior thalamus, which is the principle relay in the limbic circuitry. BN effects were also observed in IGr, Mi, SCh, and ME. Effects of restraint were found in LOVL, LOOM, and LG. It is suggested that increased LCGU in AV and AVVL may be the result of functional change in the limbic circuitry and the hypothalamus caused by BN receptor functional modification. In IGr, increased LCGU following BN administration is considered to be mainly the result the activation of NMB receptor, a subtype of BN receptors. In SCh, increased LCGU is believed to be caused both by BN effects on the thalamic, the hypothalamic, and the limbic functions and by activation of GRP receptor, another BN receptors subtype found in SCh. In ME, increased LCGU is suggested to be caused by BN effects on the hypothalamic functions, especially those related to the neuroendocrine functions. None of the alterations seen in these regions reflects the emission of stereotyped motor behaviors. Rather, they reflect a direct influence of BN central administration upon functioning of the cerebral regions influenced by BN administration. The restraint effects seen in LO, including LOOM and LOVL, are suggested to be the result of altered behavioral expression. The restraint effects seen in LG is suggested to be the result of reduced locomotion.