Aspects of the hemes and modulation of hydrogen donors in catalases from bovine liver, yeast, and escherichia coli
Hillar, Alexander P.
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Catalase is the enzyme which decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Escherichia coli contains two catalases. Hydroperoxidase I (HPI) is a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase. Hydroperoxidase II (HPII) is only catalytically active toward H202. Expression of the genes encoding these proteins is controlled by different regimes. HPJI is thought to be a hexamer, having one heme d cis group per enzymatic subunit. HPII wild type protein and heme containing mutant proteins were obtained from the laboratory of P. Loewen (Univ. of Manitoba). Mutants constructed by oligonucleotidedirected mutagenesis were targeted for replacement of either the His128 residue or the Asn201 residue in the vicinity of the HPII heme crevice. His128 is the residue thought to be analogous to the His74 distal axial ligand of the heme in the bovine liver enzyme, and Asn201 is believed to be a residue critical to the function of the enzyme because of its role in orienting and interacting with the substrate molecule. Investigation of the nature of the hemes via absorption spectroscopy of the unmodified catalase proteins and their derived pyridine hemochromes showed that while the bovine and Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalase enzymes are protoheme-containing, the HPII wild type protein contains heme d, and the mutant proteins contain either solely protoheme, or heme d-protoheme mixtures. Cyanide binding studies supported this, as ligand binding was monophasic for the bovine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and wild type HPII enzymes, but biphasic for several of the HPII mutant proteins. Several mammalian catalases, and at least two prokaryotic catalases, are known to be NADPH binding. The function of this cofactor appears to be the prevention of inactivation of the enzyme, which occurs via formation of the inactive secondary catalase peroxide compound (compound II). No physiologically plausible scheme has yet been proposed for the NADPH mediation of catalase activity. This study has shown, via fluorescence and affinity chromatography techniques, that NADPH binds to the T (Typical) and A (Atypical) catalases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and that wild type HPII apparently does not bind NADPH. This study has also shown that NADPH is unlike any other hydrogen donor to catalase, and addresses its features as a unique donor by proposing a mechanism whereby NADPH is oxidized and catalase is protected from inactivation via the formation of protein radical species. Migration of this radical to a position close to the NADPH is also proposed as an adjunct hypothesis, based on similar electron migrations that are known to occur within metmyoglobin and cytochrome c peroxidase when reacted with H202. Validation of these hypotheses may be obtained in appropriate future experiments.