Analyses, persistence an degradation of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and fenvalerate
Tan, Cynthia Shwe Yin.
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Studies on persistence and degradation of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, permethrin and fenvalerate, were carried out under natural environmental conditions of the Niagara Peninsula. Permethrin and fenvalerate were treated on apple foliage atrat~s of 0.21 kg(AI)!ha and 0.14 kg(AI)/ha, respectively. The initial cis- and trans-permethrin spray deposits were found to be 13.5 ppm and 19.2 ppm, respectively and 38.0 ppm was observed for the fenvalerate treated sample. Twenty-three days and 84 days after spray application, permethrin residues were 4.0 ppm and 2.7 ppm for the cis-isomer, whereas they were 7.9 ppm and 4.7 ppm for the trans-isomer, respectively. Residues of fenvalerate 23 days and 84 days after spray application were 13.4 ppm and 8.0 ppm, respectively. The values of observed half-life of cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin and fenvalerate were found to be 42 days, 46 days and 51 days, respectively. Studies were extended to quantitatively determine some of the major degradation compounds of permethrin and fenvalerate, which were expected to be produced as results of ester cleavage of the parent compounds. A permethrin treated sample, 84 days after initial spray application, showed 0.25 and 0.8 ppm of cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (C12CA (18), respectively. These two acids were not found as free acids, but found as conjugated compounds. The other expected degradation compounds, 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (PBalc (~)),3-phenoxybenz.aldehyde (PBald (38)) and 2- (4-chlorophenyl) isovaleric acid (CPIA (31)) were not detected by the methods employed in this study. The results indicate that these degradation compounds were not present, or, if they were present, their concentrations were too low to detect by the methods used.