Amplification of the DFR1 gene in Saccaromyces cerevisiae
Ondrusek, Nancy K.
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A new system was employed to study amplification of t,he DHF'R gene DFB,1 ) in Sa<,:;charoillYCB§. .Q~~Yi...S!i<;1~. . This system consists of a series of yeast strains containing a casset,te which encodes t he yeast, D..ERl gene ttghtly linked tjO a f usion of the yeast 1EU2. regulat,ory region wi tJ1 the LAQZ str ctural gene from E. cO.1-1 (,) . M. Clement , unpubl i,::;hed) . Th's casset;t e was shown t.o be integrat,ed int o a unj que chromosomal l ocati on in each strain . Yeast cells were se l ected for MTX-resistance and overproduction of ~ galac t osi d se ( B-gal ). Since the inserted DF'Rl and ~ACZ genes are independently regulated, it was thought that cel l s with this phenotype probably contain e d ampl if ications of the cassette. A lar ge variat ion in the f requn y o f MTX-resistance was found between the di ff e r ent str ains. These freqlen c ~ es r anged from about 2 x 10 - 7 fo r a population of cells containing the cassette integrated at, the BI J2.l gene in t,he middle of the long arm of chromosome V, to about 5 x 10-4 for a strain with the cassette i nserted in the r DNA cluster Abo It 85% of the MTX- res i stcmt iso l ates examined showed enhanced B·-gal act i v ity rel a t ive t o the parental strain . For the ma jorit y of strains, the mean B- gal activity in drug-r sistant clones was about 3 times that o f the parent following a single se l ect i on step . I n con t r ast, primary MTX-resistant derivat~ves of cells with the cassette inserted 3 at the rDNA cluster showed inc r eases in B- gal activity ranging from 9 - 14 f old r elative to the parent. Analysis of the latte r s train by Southe rn hybr idization indicated that the cassette was inde e d amplified several fold in MTX-re sistant derivatives. A sing l e strain, in which the cassette was inserted at the !lEA;], loc u.s , was used to examine in more detai 1 , the parameters affecting DFRl gene amplificat~ion in yeast . The mean B- gal activity in drug-resistant derivatives of this strain could be increased from 3 to 6 or 7 fold relative to the parent, by stepwise sel ection using increasing MTX concentrations. B-gal overproduction was found to be un stable in all primary and highly -resistant isolates examined. There was no indication, h owever, of a decrease i n growth r a t e in MTX-res i s tant cells which overproduced B - gal.