A cytophylogenetic study of Pacific black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)
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The sequential banding patterns of the larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes of seven species of Inseliellum (Diptera: Simuliidae) were mapped. This was completed through the comparison with the standard maps of an eighth species of Inseliellum, Simulium cataractarum. During chromosomal analysis, both fixed and floating inversions were identified. A floating inversion (IIL-l ex,2ex) revealed a cytotype within Simulium exasperans that is distributed between two islands, Moorea and Tahiti. Inversion data revealed three shared fixed inversions that could be used as phylogenetic characters. In addition, the placement of a chromosomal landmark (the nucleolar organizer, or NO) was used as a phylogenetic character. The result of a cytophylogenetic (transformational) analysis showed two groups: the NO-IL group, and the NO-IS group. A combined phylogeny was created using the published morphological data and the cytological data of the eight species. The combined tree did not differ from the morphological data only tree. Possible routes of dispersal are hypothesized using geological, chromosomal, and phylogenetic data. These data showed a general pattern of dispersal and colonization from older islands to younger islands, with one possible instance of dispersal from younger to older islands. It is postulated that inter-island speciation has allowed this dispersal and colonization, but intra-island speciation has created the diversity seen in Inseliellum.