Synthesis of fluorescent analogues of a-tocopherol as ligands for the human a-tocopherol transfer protein (a-TTP) /
Nava, Phillip J.
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To further understand in vivo localization and trafficking of a-tocopherol (a-Toe), the most biologically active form of vitamin E, between lipid environments, tocopherols are required that can be followed by teclu1iques such as confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays. To this end, sixteen fluorescent analogues of a-tocopherol (la-d [(1)anthroy loxy -a-tocopherols, A O-a-Toes], 2a-d [w-nitro benzoxadiazole-a-tocopherols, NBD-aToes], 3a-d [w-dansyl-a-tocopherols, DAN-a-Toes], and 4a-d [w-N-methylanthranilamide-atocopherols, NMA-a-TocsD were prepared by substituting fluorescent labels at the terminus of w-functionalized alkyl chains extending from C-2 of the chroman ring while retaining key binding features of the natural ligand. These compounds were prepared starting from (S)-Trolox® acid VIa esterification, protection, and reduction producing the silyl-protected (S)-Trolox aldehyde that was coupled using Wittig chemistry to different w-hydroxyalkylphosphonium bromides. Reduction of the alkene generated the w-hydroxy functionalized 2-n-alkyl intermediates 9a-d having the necessary 2R stereochemistry. A series of functional group manipulations including mesylation, substitution with azide, and hydride reduction provided w-amino functionalized intermediates 12a-d as well. Coupling intermediates 9a-d and 12a-d with the selected fluorophores (9- anthracene carboxylic acid, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazole, 5- dimethylaminonapthalene-l-sulfonyl chloride, and I-methyl-2H-3,1-benzoxazine-2,4(1H)dione), followed by deprotection of the phenolic silyl group, gave the desired fluorescent ligands la-d, 2a-d, 3a-d and 4a-d in good yield. Assessment of their binding affinities with recombinant human a-tocopherol transfer protein (ha-TTP) utilizing fluorescent titration binding assays identified competent ligands for further use in protein studies. Compounds Id (C9-AO-a-Toc) and 2d (C9-NBD-a-Toc) both having nonyl alkyl chain extensions between the chromanol and fluorophore were shown to bind specifically to ha-TTP with dissociation constants (KdS) of approximately 280 nM and 55 nM respectively, as compared to 25 nM for the natural ligand 2R,4'R,^'R-a-tocophQxoL.