A reconnaissance study of the metamorphic petrology and volcanic geochemistry of a portion of the Island Lake greenstone belt, Manitoba /
Delaney, Gary D.
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The Island Lake greenstone belt is one of the major Archean supracrustal exposures in the northwestern part of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield. This belt is subdivided into two units: 1) a lower sequence characterised by pillowed to massive, locally pyroclastic, basalt to andesite with a thin central zone of felsic derivatives, all of which are interbedded with and overlain by thick sequences of turbidite facies rock; 2) the upper unit which consists of thick stratified conglomerate overlain by thickly bedded arkose and feldspathic greywacke. Reconnaissance sampling traverses were completed across both the strike of the belt and along its margins with adjacent granitoids. Most of the belt is within the greenschist metamorphic f acies with amphibolite facies occurring in certain areas near t he margins. A post-tectonic, low pressure thermal event may be responsible for the development of a unit of cordierite schi s t which stretches southeastwards from the east end of Cochrane Bay. Volcanism is cyclical in nature changing from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline. There is a general progression in the character of the lavas from mafic t o felsic with stratigraphic height. Chemica l d a ta sugges t that h i gh level fractionation of a mantle- derived ' dry' magma i s t he s ource of the thole i iti c lavas. Contamination of this magma with 'we t' sia l and subsequent fractionation may be r esponsi b l e for the calcalkaline phases .Observations of stratigraphic relationships (in particular the contact between the supracrustals and the granitoids) coupled with the metamorphic and chemical studies, allow the construction of a preliminary model for the evolution of the Island Lake greenstone belt. The following sequential development is suggested: 1) a platform stage characterised by the subaqueous effusion of mafic to intermediate lavas of alternating tholeiitic and calc-alkaline affinities; 2) an edifice stage marked by the eruption of felsic calc-alkaline rocks; 3) an erosional stage characterised by the deposit~on of thick sequences of turbidite facies rocks; 4) the impingement of granitic masses into the margins of the greenstone belt, which was probably related to a downward warping of the supracrustal pilei 5) the erosion of sialic massifs surrounding and within the greenstone belt and of early supracrustal piles, to give the clastic upper unit.