Evolution of an Archean greenstone belt in the Stormy Lake - Kawashegamuk Lake area (stratigraphy, structure and geochemistry) - Western Wabigoon Subprovince, Northwest Ontario /
Kresz, D. U.
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330 km 2 of the easter-n part of the Archean Manitou Lakes - Stormy Lake metavolcanic - metasedimentary belt have been mapped and sampled. A large number of rocks ~.vere analyzed for the major and trace constituents including the rare-earth elements (REE). The Stormy Lake - Kawashegamuk Lake area may be subdivided into four major lithological groups of supracrustal rocks 1) A north-facing mafic assemblage, consisting of pillowed tholeiitic basalts and gabbro sills characterized by flat REE profiles, is exposed in the south part of the map area and belongs to a 8000 m thick homoclinal assemblage outside the map area. Felsic pyroclastic rocks believed to have been issued from a large central vent conformably overlie the tholeiites. 2) A dominantly epiclastic group facing to the north consists of terrestrial deposits interpreted to be an alluvial fan deposit ; a submarine facies is represented by turbiditic sediments. 3) The northeastern part of the study area consists of volcanic rocks belonging to two mafic - felsic cycles facing to the southuest ; andesitic flows with fractionated REE patterns make up a large part of the upper cycle, whereas the lower cycle has a stronger chemical polarity being represented by tholeiitic flows, with flat REE, which a r e succeeded by dacitic and rhyolitic pyroclasti cs. iii 4) A thick monotonous succession of tholeiitic pillmled basalt f lows and gabbro sills with flat REE represent the youngest supracrustal rocks. TIle entire belt underwent folding, faulting and granitic plutonism during a tectono-thermal event around 2700 Ma ago. Rocks exposed in the map area were subjected to regional greenschist facies metamorphism, but higher metamorphic grades are present near late granitic intrusions. Geochemical studies have been useful in 1) distinguishing the various rock units ; 2) relating volcanic and intrusive rocks 3) studying the significance of chemical changes due to post magmatic processes 4) determining the petrogenesis of the major volcanic rock types. In doing so, two major volcanic suites have been recognized : a) a tholeiitic suite, mostly represented by mafic rocks, was derived from partial melting of upper mantle material depleted in Ti, K and the light REE ; b) a calc-alkalic suite which evolved from partial melting of amphibolite in the lower crust. The more differentiated magma types have been produced by a multistage process involving partial melting and fractional crystallization to yield a continuum of compos i t i ons ranging from basaltic andesite to rhyolite. A model for the development of the eastern part of the Manitou Lakes - Stormy Lake belt has been proposed.