The surficial geology, sedimentology and geochemistry of the late glacial sediments and Paleozoic bedrock in the Campbellford area, Ontario, with special reference to the Dummer Complex /
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The Dummer Complex extends 180 km along the Precambrian - Paleozoic contact from Tamworth to Lake Simcoe. It is composed of coarse, angular Paleozoic clasts in discontinuous, pitted, hummocky deposits. Deposits are usually separated by bare or boulder strewn bedrock, but have been found in the southern drumlinized till sheet. Dummer Complex deposits show rough alignment with ice-flow. Eskers cross-cut many of the deposits. Dummer sediment subfacies are defined on the basis of dominant coarse grain size and lithology, which relate directly to the underlying Paleozoic formation. Three subglacial tills are identified based on the degree of comminution and distance of transport; the immature facies of the Dummer Complex; the mature facies of the drumlinized till sheet and; the submature facies which is transitional. Carbonate geochemistry was used for till-bedrock correlation in various grain sizes. Of the 3 Paleozoic formations underlying the Dummer Complex, the Gull River Fm. is geochemically distinctive from the Bobcaygeon and Verulam Formations using Ca, Mg, Sr, Cu, Mn, Fe and Na. The Bobcaygeon Fm. and Verulam Fm. can be differentiated using Ca and the Sr/Ca ratio. The immature facies from 1.0 phi and finer is dominated by the non-carbonate, long distance transported component which decreases slightly downice. The submature till facies contains more long distance material than the immature facies. Sr and Mn can be used to correlate the Gull River immature till facies to the underlying bedrock the other subfacies could not be distinguished from each other or their respective source formation. This method proved to be ineffective for sediments with greater than 35% non-carbonate component, due to leaching of elements by the dissolving acid.The Dummer Complex is produced subglacially , as the compressional ice encounters the permeable Paleozoic carbonates. The increased shear strength of the ice and pore pressures in the carbonates results in the basal ice zones becoming debris ladden. Cleaner ice overrides the basal debris . laden dead ice which then acts as the glacier bed. During retreat, the Simcoe lobe stagnates as flow is cut-off by the Algonquin Highlands.
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