|dc.description.abstract||This study examined the effects of providing students with explicit instruction in
how to use a repertoire of reading comprehension strategies and test taking skills when
reading and responding to three types of questions (direct, inferential, critical).
Specifically, the study examined whether providing students with a "model" of how to
read and respond to the text and to the comprehension questions improved their reading
comprehension relative to providing them with implicit instruction on reading
comprehension strategies and test taking skills. Students' reading comprehension and
test taking performance scores were compared as a function of instructional condition.
Students from 2 grade 8 classes participated in this study. The reading component
of the Canadian Achievement Tests, Third Edition (CAT/3) was used to identify
students' level of reading comprehension prior to the formal instructional sessions.
Students received either explicit instruction, which involved modelling, or implicit
instruction, which consisted of review and discussion of the strategies to be used.
Comprehension was measured through the administration of formative tests after
each instructional session. The formative tests consisted of reading comprehension
questions pertaining to a specific form of text (narrative, informational, graphic). In
addition, students completed 3 summative tests and a delayed comprehension test which
consisted of the alternative version of the CAT/3 standardized reading assessment. These
data served as a posttest measure to determine whether students had shown an
improvement in their reading comprehension skills as a result of the program delivery.
There were significant differences in students' Canadian Achievement Test
performance scores prior to the onset of the study. Students in the implicit group attained significantly higher comprehension scores than did students in the explicit group. The
results from the program sessions indicated no significant differences in reading
comprehension between the implicit and explicit conditions, with the exception of the 6th
session involving the reading and interpreting of graphic text. Students in the explicit
group performed significantly better when reading and interpreting graphic text than
those in the implicit group. No significant differences were evident between the two
study conditions across the three summative tests.
Upon completion of the study, the results from the Canadian Achievement Test
indicated no significant differences in performance between the two study conditions.
The findings from this study reveal the effectiveness of providing students with explicit
strategy instruction when reading and responding to various forms of text. Modelling the
appropriate reading comprehension strategies and test taking skills enabled students to
apply the same thought processes to their own independent work. This form of
instruction enabled students in the explicit group to improve in their abilities to
comprehend and respond to text and therefore should be incorporated as an effective
form of classroom teaching.||en_US