The osmoadaptive response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae K1-V1116 during icewine fermentation
Martin, Stephanie J.
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The adapted metabolic response of commercial wine yeast under prolonged exposure to concentrated solutes present in Icewine juice is not fully understood. Presently, there is no information regarding the transcriptomic changes in gene expression associated with the adaptive stress response ofwine yeast during Icewine fermentation compared to table wine fermentation. To understand how and why wine yeast respond differently at the genomic level and ultimately at the metabolic level during Icewine fermentation, the focus ofthis project was to identify and compare these differences in the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae KI-Vll16 using cDNA microarray technology during the first five days of fermentation. Significant differences in yeast gene expression patterns between fermentation conditions were correlated to differences in nutrient utilization and metabolite production. Sugar consumption, nitrogen usage and metabolite levels were measured using enzyme assays and HPLC. Also, a small subset of differentially expressed genes was verified using Northern analysis. The high osmotic stress experienced by wine yeast throughout Icewine fermentation elicited changes in cell growth and metabolism correlating to several fermentation difficulties, including reduced biomass accumulation and fermentation rate. Genes associated with carbohydrate and nitrogen transport and metabolism were expressed at lower levels in Icewine juice fermenting cells compared to dilute juice fermenting cells. Osmotic stress, not nutrient availability during Icewine fermentation appears to impede sugar and nitrogen utilization. Previous studies have established that glycerol and acetic acid production are increased in yeast during Icewine fermentation. A gene encoding for a glycerollW symporter (STL1) was found to be highly expressed up to 25-fold in the i Icewine juice condition using microarray and Northern analysis. Active glycerol transport by yeast under hyperosmotic conditions to increase cytosolic glycerol concentration may contribute to reduced cell growth observed in the Icewine juice condition. Additionally, genes encoding for two acetyl CoA synthetase isoforms (ACSl and ACS2) were found to be highly expressed, 19- and II-fold respectively, in dilute juice fermenting cells relative to the Icewine juice condition. Therefore, decreased conversion of acetate to acetyl-CoA may contribute to increased acetic acid production during Icewine fermentation. These results further help to explain the response of wine yeast as they adapt to Icewine juice fermentation. ii