Biotransformations of water insoluble substrates in aqueous, two-phase and encapsulated systems /
MetadataShow full item record
The biotransformation of water insoluble substrates by mammalian and bacterial cells has been problematic, since these whole cell reactions are primarily performed in an aqueous environment The implementation of a twophase or encapsulated system has the advantages of providing a low water system along with the physiological environment the cells require to sustain themselves. Encapsulation of mammalian cells by formation of polyamide capsules via interfacial polymerization illustrated that the cells could not survive this type of encapsulation process. Biotransformation of the steroid spironolactone  by human kidney carcinoma cells was performed in a substrate-encapsulated system, yielding canrenone  in 70% yield. Encapsulation of nitrile-metabolizing Rhodococcus rhodochrous cells using a polyamide membrane yielded leaky capsules, but biotransformation of 2-(4- chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyronitrile (CPIN)  in a free cell system yielded CPIN amide  in 40% yield and 94% ee. A two-phase biotransformation of CPIN consisting of a 5:1 ratio of tris buffer, pH 7.2 to octane respectively, gave CPIN acid  in 30% yield and 97% ee. It was concluded that Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 17895 contained a nonselective nitrile hydratase and a highly selective amidase enzyme.